Why India need to legalize marijuana
Medical Importance of Marijuana
Marijuana is the most frequently used drug substance across the world. In India, the use of marijuana has been bound to mysticism and faith. Most of the users in India say that the drug helps attain some ecstasy level in the original sense of the world. India has celebrated and consumed marijuana for many years. While cannabis has remained one of the controlled drug substances, research has resulted in the development and marketing of medications that are synthetic prescription of marijuana.
The studies have shown that the use of marijuana has a lot of medical assistances. Marijuana is used to treat glaucoma, slows the progress of Alzheimer’s disease, improves metabolism, and prevents the spread of cancer to other parts of the body. Marijuana is known to reduce anxiety, and it spurs significant creativity in the brain. Therefore, instead of the government spending a lot of taxpayers’ money in arresting the drug criminals and cutting down cannabis plantations, why can’t the Indian government save itself from all that trouble and legalize a substance that has been accepted culturally by the Indian people? Marijuana is significant in promoting the socio-economic development of India.
A government research body, the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research’s Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine (CSIR-IIIM), announced it was developing natural marijuana-based drugs. The cannabis-based medicines were being developed to treat the patients suffering from sickle-cell anemia, cancer, and epilepsy. The pilot test was conducted on cancer patients undergoing treatment at Tata Memorial Hospital in Mumbai (“Health benefits of marijuana [Working title],” 2020). It was concluded that cannabis-based drugs were found to be effective in relieving pain and other symptoms in cancer patients after radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
The director of CSIR-IIIM revealed that researchers had started testing on small animals like rats using Himalayan marijuana plant high in cannabidiol (CBD) but low in tetrahydrocannabinol. The analysis conducted by researchers from the Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences reported positive outcomes that marijuana has retrogressive effects on cancer patients. This unique research study was one of its kind in India. CSIR, in collaboration with Bombay Hemp Company, hosted a conference to promote the use of marijuana-based medicines in India, especially Delhi. The meeting was called Cannabis R&D in India: A scientific, medal as well as Legal perspective. It was attended by the Minister of State for PMO Jitendra Sing and several other dignitaries.
The first medical marijuana clinic was opened in India in Koramangala in February this year, 2020. The clinic sells oils and tablets infused with cannabis under the brand name Vedi herbals. The clinic is operated by HempCann Solutions based in Odisha. India is the birthplace of marijuana, and this is the perfect time to make healthcare experts realize the therapeutic value of cannabis. The medicines from Vedi herbals help with inflammation, downers as well as flagging individuals’ sex life.
Contemporary Medical use of Marijuana.
Marijuana should be legalized in India, but it is still illegal from India’s government perspective. About 80% of Indians support the legalization and usage of medical marijuana, and approximation of at least several million Indians currently use marijuana. Several excellent questions surround the legalization of cannabis in India (“Health benefits of marijuana [Working title],” 2020). The reason why marijuana should be legalized is why patients find it useful and how they can discuss the use of marijuana with their doctors.
The main components of marijuana currently in medical interest are tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). The two cannabinoids have a slightly similar function in the body. THC is responsible for reducing nausea and increase appetite. It may also be used to reduce pain, control muscle problems, and reduce swelling and redness. CBD is a marijuana component that does not make people high. Most scientific researchers are continuing to explore the proper uses of CBD and THC, as well as other marijuana compounds for medical treatment.
Bangalore is now the home of India’s research-based cannabis plant. After several years of extensive research in the cannabis field, HempCann solutions now sell oils and tablets made from the marijuana plant. The brand name Vedi herbals carry the clinic and wellness center, and they prescribe pills infused with cannabis to enhance individuals’ health and wellness (Kashyap & Kashyap, 2014). The primary key to using medical marijuana is to tackle inflammation, anxiety, insomnia, and the problems associated with sex. Lifestyle diseases such as fever, back pain, and stress can be managed using medicinal marijuana.
Moreover, medical cannabis helps with managing chronic illnesses like anorexia as well as mental diseases like depression. Aayushman Narayan was stated, “The Tetrahydrocannabidiol (THC) helps to take care of pain and inflammation while cannabidiol (CBD) helps to boost the body’s immunity, hence curing illness instead of the patient being dependent on various class of drugs for normal functioning. Herbal remedies from marijuana backed with ancient texts, traditional and validated by principles of modern scientific product development, are not addictive and do not have side effects.” No side effects on a gentle and stable treatment are good news for the Indian citizens.
The most common use of marijuana in India should be to control pain. Even though marijuana is not strong and good enough for severe pain, it is relatively effective for chronic pain that affects millions of Indian people, especially the elderly. The cannabidiols is used to reduce pain through the alteration of pathways of pain perception in the brain. This helps to treat chronic conditions such as migraine, fibromyalgia, and arthritis. Part of its appeal is that it is safer because it is impossible to overdose and gets addicted while using marijuana. Marijuana eases the pain of multiple sclerosis and general nerve pain. Most of the patients who have used medical marijuana claim that it allows them to resume duties and conduct their normal activities without feeling disengaged (Kashyap & Kashyap, 2014). Marijuana helps to replace long term use nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen, which have adverse side effects on patients.
Most people in India have appreciated the use of marijuana due to its intoxicating outcome, and they are praising it for its medicinal effect. Vedi herbals are making marijuana an alternative for treating inflammation. When the white body cells detect any foreign substance in the body, such as a virus or bacteria, the boy’s immune system begins to protect the body from severe complications. Nevertheless, sometimes the immune system initiates an inflammatory response even if there are no threats available in the body. This is because your body cells attack the body, hence causing the inflammation. Therefore, marijuana is an effective medicine for reducing pain related to inflammation and chronic inflammation due to cannabinoids, CBD (cannabidiol), and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Both THC and CBD help reduce inflammation associated with several other diseases.
Studies have revealed that marijuana can be used as a cancer treatment and boost the body’s immune system. Medical scientists have identified several active biologically active components in marijuana. Naturally occurring ingredients in marijuana can help to stop cancer cells from spreading as well as block tumor blood supplies. The latest research, published in the British Journal of Pharmacology, revealed that phytocannabinoids, which is the most notable compound in marijuana, is directly responsible for fighting and destroying cancer cells in the body (“Health benefits of marijuana [Working title],” 2020). Phytocannabinoids positively stimulate the human endocannabinoid system accountable for brain functioning, immune tissues, and endocrine. Cannabinoids prevent cancer cells from dividing and invade healthy body tissues and blocks the supply of blood to tumors. The component also enhances the immune response of the body against the growth and spread of cancer tumors. Cannabinoids have a severe effect on cancer cells’ progression, such as chemo-resistance, attack, and propagation of cancer cells. With the legalization and proper monitoring of marijuana from the Indian government, marijuana compounds can aggressively fight cancer cells.
An active component in marijuana known as tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has been proven to stimulate elimination of toxic clumps of amyloid-beta protein in brain. The beta protein is responsible for starting the development of Alzheimer’s disease. THC works by passing from the lungs to the blood, and then it attaches to cannabinoid receptor (CB) 1 and 2found cell surfaces of the body. The receptors are concentrated in brain neurons responsible for the perception of time, memory, coordination, pleasure, and thinking. THC binds with endocannabinoids produced during physical activity to encourage brain signals from cell-to-cell. Indian government should consider legalizing marijuana to help treat patients with Alzheimer’s disease.
Glaucoma is a severe disease that increases the eyeball’s pressure, hence causing the loss of vision by injuring the optic nerve. Marijuana can be used to treat this condition by lowering the pressure in the eye. Scientific studies show that smoked marijuana reduces intraocular stress (IOP) in individuals with glaucoma. The fall of IOP reaches its peak after smoking marijuana. Therefore, to produce a sustained effect and reduce pressure in the eye, it is advisable to smoke marijuana 6 to 8 times a day (III & McGee, 2018). The therapeutic objective of smoking marijuana is to prevent the damaging of the retinal and optic nerve in glaucoma. The positive effect of treating glaucoma using oral THC, a component of cannabis is prolonged. A few doses of THC will be required a day in order not to avoid psychoactive effects of THC useful in reducing intraocular pressure (IOP). The results of marijuana can prevent blindness.
Progressive interruptions and severe seizures are caused by dravet syndrome. A famous chief medical writer for CNN, Dr. Sanjay Gupta treated Charlotte Figi, a five-year-old girl using marijuana that contains low THC and high cannabidiol. When Dr. Gupta was documenting about marijuana in the “WEED”, he interviewed Figi family and found out that marijuana decreased her seizures. Fifty other children used the same medication, and it has assisted them greatly (Kashyap & Kashyap, 2014). The physician recommended using marijuana in treating draft syndrome, saying that cannabidiol in marijuana interacts with brain cells. CBD then tends to quiet extreme activities in the brain responsible for causing seizures. Researchers at Harvard University recommended that marijuana reduces anxiety and improves the mood and acts as tranquilizer when taken in low quantities.
Treatment of Hepatitis C infection has serious side effects, so serious that most patients are not able to complete procedure. The side effects which last for months involve nausea, depression, loss of appetite, fatigue and pain in muscles. Bu the discovery of marijuana as possible medicine for treatment provides some rescue for the patients. European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology conducted some research study in 2006 and revealed that 90% of the patients who use cannabis completed therapy sessions successfully. Only 24% of non-smokers completed treatments. This is evident that marijuana assists in lessening side effects of the procedure. 60% of the hepatitis C patients that smoked marijuana reduced and maintained low viral infection levels (III & McGee, 2018). A research in Cerebral Cortex journal revealed that marijuana helps to treat brain after concussion or other painful injury hence it protects the brain from trauma and concussion. The journal details that experiments were conducted on mice and concluded that marijuana diminished tinting of the brain and helped heal mechanisms after traumatic injury.
Regulatory bodies response/suggestion to cannabis legalization.
Marijuana in India remains illegal under the act of Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (NDPS). In India the substance it is associated with traditions and religious customs dating back many years. Legalization of marijuana should be a debatable for Narcotic Drug and Psychotropic Substances (NDPS). Enforcement of NDPS act of 1985 illegalized ownership and sale of cannabis across India (Gerber, 2004). Despite its immense significance in the medical sector, the government has not taken any positive step in legalizing marijuana. The NDPS Act has several conflicting judgments that always confuse the public about the effects of marijuana. Bhang is not covered in the NDPS act. Bhang is made from cannabis leaves and it is used in festivals in some parts of India. The production and the sale of bhang are allowed in many Indian State Governments.
Section 8 of the NDPS act prohibits anyone from cultivating cannabis plant except for scientific and medical purposes as per the provisions of the act. Marijuana is legal for medical use and scientific research purposes, but it is strictly illegal for recreational use. The State Governments have not been allowing the cultivation of marijuana, and medicinal use of marijuana have been limited to alternative medicine like homeopathy. The government should legalize marijuana to produce THC, an active component for intoxication. The strict and zero-tolerance policies of the government have blinded from noticing the medical benefits of cannabis (Gerber, 2004). Therefore it has lost its focus on legalizing the product to benefit the people of India.
Food and Drug Agency (FDA) understands that there is an interest in the utility of cannabis for various medical conditions and research on potential severe health effects from marijuana use. FDA has permitted some products that comprise cannabinoids such as:
Epidiolex, a drug that contains a pure form of CBD derived from cannabis, was licensed to be used in the treatment of seizures related to dravet syndrome, two rare and severe forms of epilepsy.
Syndros and Marinol contain dronabinol, a synthetic THC, and sesame that contain nabilone were all approved by the FDA. Nabilone and dronabinol are used to treat nausea and vomiting, which is always caused by cancer chemotherapy. Loss of appetite and weight in patients with HIV/AIDS are treated using dronabinol.
FDA has realized that some companies are marketing products containing cannabis and marijuana compounds. Hence, violating Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C). This puts the safety and health of potential consumers at risk. FDA is devoted to defending the health of the general public by refining regulatory pathways for lawful marketing of suitable products derived from marijuana such as THC and CBD. The agency wants to ensure that there is a centralized location where the consumers can easily access the products.
The response of the World Health Organization of Legalization of Marijuana.
World Health Organization endorses the reclassification of marijuana under international pacts. Continental health experts at the United Nations suggest that the components of cannabis be formally reclassified under global drug acts. The World Health Organization is advocating for the removal of marijuana from schedule IV-most restraining act of 1961 drug convention signed by several countries around the world (Tom Angell, 2019). WHO wants tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) to be abolished from the 1971 drug treaty and then added to Schedule I of 1961 treaty.
WHO recommended that marijuana should remain in Schedule I of 1961 convention. Schedule IV is reserved for drug substances that are predominantly harmful with few medical benefits. The body is also suggesting that cannabidiol be placed under international control, which indicates that components of marijuana should be removed from Schedule I of 1961 convention and pharmaceutical compounds that contain THC to be set in Schedule III of the treaty.
The adoption of WHO recommendations represent official recognition that several governing bodies in the world have been wrong about the harmful effects of marijuana. The position of WHO comes at a time when a higher number of nations are considering reforming their rules on marijuana and cannabis. Michael Krawitz said that the placement of marijuana in 1961 convention without proper scientific evidence was severe injustice (Tom Angell, 2019). He applauded WHO for setting the record straight on the benefits of cannabis. Therefore, it is upon the Indian government to support the recommendations of WHO on marijuana and ensure that politics does not trump the legalization of marijuana in India.
The response of the United Nations on the Legalization of Marijuana.
The quasi-judicial drug policy body of the United Nations that is an International Narcotics Control board released a contemptuous report scolding countries that have legalized marijuana. The report outlined the effects of cannabis on the health of the youths. The expansion of poorly regulated medical marijuana has led to increased normalization of marijuana use for non-medical purposes, hence causing harm to the public (Roojin Habibi, 2018). According to the United Nations report, medical marijuana programs have laid the ground for recreational, thus failing to control the production and supply of marijuana, therefore violating international drug convention.
The UN report condemns the use of marijuana because it encourages young people to use drugs when their brains are vulnerable to severe effects. It claims that low potency of marijuana that young people use leads to a severe mental disorder like psychosis and memory loss resulting to loss IQ points. United Nations use the lessons learned from the use of tobacco and alcohol, showing that legalization leads to increased use of cannabis among youths (Hasse, 2019). The report refutes the argument made by legalization advocates that controlled marijuana market keeps the product out of hand from teenagers. They are giving evidence of catching numerous pot shops selling marijuana minors.
Adverse Effects of Cannabis.
Regarding the legalization of marijuana for recreational and medical reasons, patients are concerned about its adverse and beneficial effects on health. The distinct notion is that marijuana is harmless; its access should be regulated and considered harmful. Marijuana is the most frequently used drug among youths. The most common way of consumption is through inhalation (Volkow et al., 2014). The adverse effects of cannabis include the following:
Risk related to addiction. Despite argumentative discussion about the addictiveness of marijuana, the evidence indicates that long term use of marijuana can lead to addiction. An approximation of 10% of those who use marijuana often become addicted. The use of marijuana among adolescents is becoming worrying. The increased vulnerability of adolescents to harmful long-term outcomes of using cannabis is related to the brain where the endocannabinoid system is undergoing dynamic development during the teenage stage. Therefore, early and regular use of marijuana leads to an increased addiction predicting the use of other illegal drug substances.
Affects the development of the brain. The brain remains in an active state from the prenatal period to the adolescent stage until 21 years. During this brain maturity period, it is vulnerable than a mature brain to severe long term effects of THC, the critical component of marijuana (Volkow et al., 2014). Adults who smoked marijuana frequently during the teenage stage have diminished neural connection is particular regions of the brain. The brain part that is affected is precuneus, the central part of the brain involved in the function of integration of a high degree.
An effect related to mental illness. Increased anxiety and depression are associated with the regular use of marijuana products. Marijuana is connected to psychosis among people that have a pre-existing genetic vulnerability. Exacerbates is the cause of schizophrenia. Regular use of marijuana at a young age affects the trajectory of the disease in the brain. Various factors predispose an individual to mental illness due to excessive use of marijuana.
Economic importance of marijuana.
According to Grand View Research, the international market of cannabis is anticipated to be USD 147 billion by 2025. Cannabis is a topic of debate in India because it has numerous effects. Marijuana has great potential for boosting the economy of India and create several job opportunities. The people of India have an enormous knowledge of how to utilize the product, and there is a favorable climatic condition for producing marijuana (Lyman, 2016). Legalizing marijuana will pave the way for India to be a key player and key stakeholder in the industry. The people will slice a niche for themselves as the pioneers of marijuana-based products.
Lack of proper supply and increased demand means that the quality of marijuana has been compromised for quick money. For a very long time, the government has brushed away the issue of legalizing marijuana from the public instead of providing an efficient framework for supplying the product to boost the economy. The great Legalisation Movement in India has been educating the masses on the benefits of marijuana as well as hemp. Support from some of the Congress MPs for the legalization of medical marijuana has gained massive attention from the public.
Generating import Tax revenue.
After almost 95 years of prohibition, Canada decided to legalize recreational marijuana. The marijuana market in Canada generates more than USD 8 billion in sales from medical, legal, and illegal recreational marijuana products in 2019. The total revenue collection from the legal recreational cannabis market is USD 5 billion. The marijuana market of the United States of America was estimated to generate approximately USD 7 billion in 2016. From 2017 to 2025, the revenue generated is expected to grow exponentially with 25%. Sales of marijuana in Washington and Colorado have resulted in substantial tax revenues for the two states. The revenue collected in taxes and fees on medical and recreational marijuana in 2019 was more than USD 304 million, while total sales in the country were over USD 2 billion (Lyman, 2016). The sales from cannabis in the United States in 2019 was USD 13 billion and is anticipated to rise to USD 32 billion by 2024. Should marijuana be legalized at the federal level in the United States, then the profits will be extraordinary.
Indian cities are among the highest consumers of marijuana globally; therefore, legalizing marijuana products will provide enormous revenue collection for the government. New Delhi and Mumbai have emerged among the top 10 cities where marijuana is heavily consumed. The cost of marijuana is cheaper in New Delhi; however, the failure to legalize marijuana in India, and improper regulatory framework leads to a significant loss of tax revenue for the government. Currently, India allows the cultivation of cannabis for industrial use only but consuming leads to six months of jail term. New Delhi can raise USD 105 million in a year, while Mumbai can raise USD 100 million in revenue (Frendreis & Tatalovich, 2020). Therefore, it is evident that if India legalizes marijuana, it will be able to generate revenue for the government. The government will earn an enormous amount of income by legalizing as well as taxing marijuana, which always goes to Israeli and Italian cartels.
Creating Job Opportunities.
Legal marijuana will provide a tremendous economy in India. It will help secure investment opportunities across the country. It is difficult for investors to capitalise illegal marijuana on the growth of the industry. The number of cannabis-related firms trading on the stock exchange is minimal. Should marijuana be permitted, the firms will be allowed to list in the Indian stock exchange. This will, in turn, enhance liquidity and then open access for more investors. Investors are likely to interest in the marijuana industry if the growth rate of marijuana continues to rise (Burnham, 2013). The sector will attract more investors in the country who will, in turn, create a lot of job opportunities.
Setting marijuana dispensaries and nurseries of medical marijuana will be the first step. Setting up medical dispensaries will create employment opportunities for many people. It will also set the ball rolling for economic activities in India. Legalizing medical and recreational marijuana in India could support over 42,000 jobs by 2024. It will generate over USD 2 billion in income labor. There is an approximation of 80000 additional induced, direct, and indirect employment opportunities in India due to sales from legalized marijuana products. This projects an increase in labor income by at least USD 4 billion. If the Indian government legalizes marijuana, it will generate over 1 million jobs by 2025 worldwide.
These jobs will come from growing industries that will spring up all over India. Workers will be required to cultivate, process, distribute, and sell marijuana medical and recreational products. There will be ample opportunities for tertiary firms correlated to legitimate cannabis to be involved in the making and supply of products from marijuana. These will include financial advisers, construction companies, software developers (Frendreis & Tatalovich, 2020). Legalizing marijuana in India will help the government create job opportunities and help solve the unemployment rate in India.
Reduction of crimes to trade.
This proposal believes that legalizing marijuana will reduce crimes related to trading. If the Indian government legalizes marijuana products, the number of people involved in illegal activities related to the production, distribution, and use of marijuana will reduce drastically. Western countries realized that varied bans of marijuana did not work because it requires much work to grow and manufacture it. The banning of the drug led to the creation of the international black market, hence the emergence of the criminal industry that smuggled and supplied the marijuana products to the silent consumers (Dasgupta, 2013). The ban also resulted in huge and organized corruption enterprises of police officers, judges, and custom services. Ultimately it led to the death of innocent people who want to expose illegal trading. Marijuana has many medicinal values.
Most countries across the world have legalized marijuana in some form or another such as South Africa, Canada, Argentina, Mexico, North Korea, most of the EU nations, Switzerland, and some states in the United States of America. The benefits of some legalization comprise of increase in revenue collection for the states and governments, a decrease in the number of prisoners, especially female prisoners. There is a win-win situation for both the government and the industry for most countries that have legalized marijuana.
In 2013, when Washington State legalized the use of marijuana for recreational and medical use, the number of court cases for marijuana reduced by 99%. The number of adults arrested trading the drug illegally in the streets also reduced. The number of people convicted of illegal trading also fell by 48%. In Colorado, after it legalized the sale of marijuana products in 2014, the number of court filings against people for cultivation, distribution, and possession of marijuana reduced by 86%, compared to the years before legalization between 20210 to 2012. Similar declines of crimes related to the trading of marijuana in charges and convictions were witnessed in other jurisdictions that legalized recreational and medical marijuana like Alaska, Washington, D.C, and Oregon. Since the cannabis industry’s entry, Canada and the US stock exchange market have received a lot of boosting due to tax payment and legal multi-billion-dollar cannabis industries (Dasgupta, 2013). The problem of seasonal unemployment has been solved since the commercialization of this industry.
The use of marijuana was illegalized in India, and it was declared to be a hard drug in 1985 under the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (NDPS) Act. India is a hub concerning crimes related to trade. There will be no black market for the cultivation and distribution of marijuana if India legalizes marijuana hence reducing crimes connected to illegal trading. There will be strict laws concerning farming, possession, and distribution of marijuana products in the market by the government. Therefore, the production and supply of these products should not be left to drug dealers. Currently, police officers and other law enforcement officers are acting as the catalyst in illegal trading by accepting bribes from suppliers and cultivators (Bewley-Taylor, 2018). Law enforcers ensure that they offer protection for lands producing marijuana and supply trucks from a range of attacks and raids. The fact is that the black market is expedited by the good atmospheric condition in India for growth of marijuana.
If the Indian government bans the use of tobacco or alcoholic products, it will not prevent the people from smoking or drinking such products. The reason is that the black market for such products often rise and crime rates increase. The same scenario is happening to the marijuana industry in India and should be legalized to prevent crimes and unnecessary addiction. Legalized marijuana will enable the stopping of high reinforcement of laws regarding marijuana. Hence it will successively free the corrupt law enforcement officers. It will also reduce court proceedings regarding the crimes related to illegal trading of marijuana products.
Marijuana has been part of the Indian tradition for centuries, and it is always mentioned in Hindu scriptures such as Atharva Veda. The disturbing and confusing fact is that marijuana is under the same category as cocaine and heroin despite having tremendous medical benefits. The Indian government illegalized the use of marijuana due to a lot of pressure from the western countries. Still, the same western countries realized the mistake they made by illegalizing marijuana products and began to legalize it due to its vast significance and benefits. Therefore, India should promote their amazing culture by legalizing marijuana and rip the benefits.
From this evidence and many other articles that support the legalization of marijuana, it is therefore clear that even though the legalization of marijuana products does not eliminate crimes related to illegal trading of marijuana, it inclines to diminish it. Resulting in a more significant focus on other violent crimes and relieves the burden of placed of law courts, law enforcement officers, and congestion of prison cells (Bewley-Taylor, 2018). Legalization will also reduce the use of marijuana products by minors. The most significant benefit of lowering trade-related crimes comes from marijuana legalization for medical and recreational use. There will also be more benefits due to reduced prices of marijuana products and reduced criminal activities related to cultivation, supply, and distribution of marijuana in India.
Problems with prohibition
In 2019, The New Delhi high court pursued the government’s position on an appeal filed by the Great Legalisation Movement India Trust to prohibit use of marijuana. The movement dared the policies of the Narcotics Drug and Psychotropic Substances act of 1985, which prevents the use of marijuana because it violates several laws of the Indian constitution. The main contention is that NDPS thinks that the main compound in cannabis that gives euphoric feeling is THC. There is little evidence that THC is connected to psychosis (Gieringer, 2012). CBD is a compound in marijuana, and it is a substance that counteracts the effect of psychosis.
Prohibition makes illegal drug substances more powerful and more reliable. In the United States, when consumption of alcohol was prohibited, it increased its use. Alcohol became very dangerous due to its prohibition and let to increased organized crimes. There were no considerable gains that were made in productivity hence reducing absenteeism among workers. Ban has removed a huge source of tax revenue for the government, thus increasing their spending.
Prohibition of marijuana gives people the power to misuse it hence engage in harming themselves. The harm caused by prohibition laws to the users of marijuana products is the physical possession of the drug. Harsh rules on marijuana castigate users. Laws have made the prices of marijuana to rise. The destruction and confiscation of marijuana farms and supply trucks have caused the costs of illegal marijuana products to rise due to increased scarcity. Users will be discouraged from using the drug due to higher prices. This is a principle of interdiction provisions.
Higher prices of marijuana products require that users get considerably high income. Therefore, if users cannot get the product through legal means, they will be tempted to engage in illegal conduct to get the product, in which they will not otherwise engage if marijuana is legalized. Prohibition laws have led to the emergence of criminality. The laws induce the users to contemplate conducting criminal activities and develop into people who are prepared to commit criminalities to others. High prices for marijuana products make use of cannabis-based products to be hazardous for users. It has led to intravenous injection due to the high costs caused by prohibition laws (Gieringer, 2012). In countries where the use of marijuana is legal, there is a regulatory framework in place on how it is consumed. Consumption through the injection can cause serious health problems such as the spread of HIV/AIDS due sharing of unsterilized needles among drug users.
Drug laws try to prohibit the use of drug products that some individuals wish to consume. Thus, due to the prohibition of marijuana’s legal sale, people who consume the product will want to get it from individuals who take the risk of producing and supplying the drug despite hefty punishment if arrested. Such transactions are conducted away from law enforcers, place them in grave danger in many ways. The users rely on criminals to regulate the quantity and quality of marijuana.
Prohibition laws cannot prevent people from using marijuana. The laws have enabled illegal production and distribution of marijuana through the black market. It is easy to get marijuana in India, and youths use it. Marijuana is less harmful than alcohol, and if alcohol is legal in India, then marijuana should be legalized. Marijuana keeps its users in a calm state of mind because the chances of being addicted to marijuana are less than 9%. The abuse of prohibited marijuana leads to grave public health problem and cause severe economic losses to the government in terms of revenue collection. Therefore, it is essential to legalize marijuana and empower people and the community to live a healthy life and become productive individuals in society.
Possible decrease in teen use of cannabis.
Most of the teenager always try marijuana and then end up using it regularly. The use of marijuana among teenagers is highest in 30 years-olds, and they are likely to use marijuana more than tobacco. Countries that have legalized marijuana allow recreational marijuana products in adults of ages 21 and above. Recreational use of marijuana by teenagers and children is illegal in the United States. Currently, marijuana is grown differently, and it contains more tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a component that makes people high. The components of marijuana have the best medical benefits, such as cannabidiol (CBD).
In recent years the use of marijuana among youths has risen in the United States. Still, new research concluded that in the states that have legalized recreational marijuana, the usage among teenagers had dropped drastically. According to the medical journal, JAMA Paediatrics, laws that legalized recreational use of marijuana enabled drop of teenage use. It revealed that there was minimal effect among the youths due to legalization (Gieringer, 2012). The research study was based on variations in policies ad credible estimation. There is a decrease in teen use of marijuana-based products because it is difficult for young people to get marijuana from drug peddlers. They have been replaced by licensed nurseries and dispensaries that demand proof of age. After legalization, there will be no need for street sales of marijuana products and establish dispensaries that will be checking and carding verification of age.
Teenagers trust that using marijuana is safer than consuming alcohol or other hard drugs. Some young people justify that they use marijuana for medical purposes. Using cannabis with a prescription from an expert is known as medical marijuana. Laws that regulate medical marijuana are changing with time in states and countries that have legalized marijuana. In these countries, children of any age can receive medical marijuana prescriptions if they have a qualifying medical disorder. Several research pieces of evidence support the use of medical marijuana among teens.
The parents can also assist teenagers in learning about the effects of marijuana hence decreasing its usage among youths. Talking to teenagers and children about marijuana at a primary age will assist them make enhanced decisions and stop them from developing problems associated with marijuana use in the coming years. The parents should talk to their children openly and honestly while in school at a young age. Young people are afraid to try using marijuana if they can ask their parents for assistance and understand how the parents feel when they use the drug. Talking to your child about the effect of excessive marijuana, other medical purposes may delay the age of first use, hence protecting their brain. If the teenager is already using the drug, it is prudent for parents and experts to ask relevant questions openly without being judgemental. Therefore, the government should contact pediatricians and qualified mental physicians to offer advisory services. This will assist in the use of marijuana among teenagers.
Policies that surround marijuana continue to evolve, and legal marijuana should be accepted in India. The project that surrounds marijuana policies proves that if the Indian government approves the use of cannabis-based products have confirmed a significant drop in the use of marijuana by youths. When India legalizes marijuana, it will have proper regulation on how it should be accessed and used among teenagers. This way, it will regulate the level of addiction and reduce adverse effects among the youths using marijuana. The government should formulate policies that determine the age required to use marijuana, especially 21 years old and above.
There are many recommendations on how marijuana should be legalized in India, and it depends on a lot of parameters.
1. Addressing the Research gaps.
National research agenda is required to address research gaps regarding the use of marijuana. The ambitious objective and principle goal of the agenda should be how to maximize the impact of cannabis-based products research. For the government to achieve this objective, collaboration, and proper coordination among scientists and health researchers. Stakeholders, both local and national levels, should provide firm support. The government researchers should pursue various distinct streams of research that comprise observational and clinical studies on the use of marijuana. Research should be conducted in several health areas such as health economics, favorable health policies, the health of the general public, and safety.
The research agenda should involve studies of basic sciences regarding marijuana to provide proper information on efforts to minimize harms caused by marijuana and how to maximize benefits associated with medical and recreational marijuana. To develop comprehensive evidence on the benefits of cannabis, public agencies, private companies, public health research groups, philanthropic and professional organizations should provide support and funding to the government for the national marijuana research agenda. The agenda is to address relevant gas that hinders the legalization of marijuana in India.
2. Implementation of public safety and proper protection strategies.
To establish successful marijuana legalization, the Indian government will need a robust and transparent regulatory and legislative framework. Law enforcement agencies will be required to explore their regulatory roles and develop robust policies and practices on how marijuana will be produced and distributed. This will require the support of suitable actions to impose measures outlined by the government upon legalization. Establishing effective legalization of marijuana will require strengthening the policies and laws that minimize criminal involvement hence protecting the public. Laws will be needed to punish those who operate outside legal parameters.
3. Designing a suitable system for marijuana distribution.
The Indian government will only allow legal sales of marijuana to be conducted by licensed producers, and they should be restricted to using email and digital platforms. This will provide a very reliable, low cost of delivery all over India in a distinctive way that discourages excess usage. The appropriate distribution system will also keep prices of marijuana low because no need for overhead hence maintaining a retail distribution system. Through the distribution system, illegal distribution will be minimized and correctly managed.
4. Minimize the harms of using marijuana.
This is one of the main concerns that the government should consider in the formulation of a legal and regulatory framework for lawful and use of marijuana. The government will identify features of production and distribution systems that will perfectly reduce the risks regarding health and harmful social effects associated with the use of marijuana. When finding ways to minimize harms involving the use of marijuana, this objective should be achieved if strict government actions such as setting the required minimum age for purchase, measures regarding taxation, and tools of education aimed at fostering responsible use of marijuana. This regulatory framework will address the following relevant issues:
Minimum required age for the legal purchase of marijuana.
Advertising and marketing restriction policies to reduce the profile and attractiveness of marijuana products.
Taxation and pricing of marijuana.
Restricting production and distribution of marijuana.
The subject of ratification of marijuana and how it should be used is essential, sensitive, and also complex. There are several issues involved and implications ranging from health, the safety of the general public, and domains of criminal justice. Addressing the issue of legalizing marijuana requires the input of all sectors and Indians. This draft recommends how best India’s government can legalize, restrict, and regulate the access and use of marijuana in India.