FUTURE OF VEGANISM IN CULINARY INDUSTRY
City and State
Table of Contents
CHAPTER 3: LITERATURE REVIEW 4
3.1 Introduction 4
3.2 Statistical facts About Veganism 5
3.3 Veganism Trends in the Culinary Industry 6
3.4 Factors Responsible for Adopting a Vegan Lifestyle 8
3.4.1 Health Concerns 8
3.4.2 Animal Welfare 9
3.4.3 Health Food Bloggers 9
3.4.4 Public Campaigns and Economy 9
3.5 Barriers of Being vegan 10
3.6 Environmental impacts of vegan diet in comparison to non-vegan diet. 12
3.7 Economics of vegan diet compared to non-vegan diet. 13
3.8 Economics and environmental effects on the future of veganism 14
CHAPTER 4: METHODOLOGY 15
4.1 Introduction 15
4.2 Research Methodology 15
4.3 Secondary Research Methodologies 16
4.3.1 Literature Search 16
4.3.2 Inclusion Criteria 17
4.3.3 Exclusion Criteria 17
4.4 PRISMA Diagram for the Systematic Review 18
.1 Identification 18
.2 Eligibility 18
.3 Included 18
.4 Screening 18
4.5 Literature Review 19
4.6 Primary Research 19
4.6.1 Research Instrumentation 19
4.6.2 Sampling Strategy 20
4.6.3 Piloting the Research Instrument 21
4.6.4 Conducting the Research 22
4.7 Assumptions 23
CHAPTER 5: DATA ANALYSIS 24
5.1 Introduction 24
5.2 Method of Analysis 24
5.3 Software Used 28
5.3.1 Step 1: Exploring the Source (Transcript) 29
5.3.2 Step 2: Generation of Initial Codes 29
5.3.3 Step 3: Searching for Themes 30
5.3.4 Step 4: Reviewing Themes 30
5.3.5 Step 5: Defining, Naming, and Grouping themes into Categories 31
5.3.6 Step 6: Writing a Report 32
5.4 Results 33
CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 34
6.1 Conclusions 34
6.2 Recommendations 36
0: APPENDICES 44
0.1 Appendix 1: Interview Excerpt 44
0.2 Appendix 2: Atlasl Ti Software Code Generation 45
0.3 Appendix 3: Turning Codes into Themes 45
0.4 Appendix 4: Results 46
0.4.1 Reasons for Veganism 46
0.4.2 Veganism trend in Different Countries 46
0.4.3 Worldwide Veganism Trends 47
0.5 Appendix 5: Interview Evaluation Template 47
CHAPTER 3: LITERATURE REVIEW
Veganism is becoming a popular theme. Over the past few years, many celebrities and wealthy people have gone vegan probing research on why this is so. Similarly, many people with different health conditions have been advised not to use animal foods like meat and eggs. As has been illustrated by many medical research institutes, going vegan is one way of avoiding some illnesses like heart diseases (Sebastiani, Herranz Barbero, Borrás-Novell, Alsina Casanova, Aldecoa-Bilbao, Andreu-Fernández, Pascual Tutusaus, Ferrero Martínez, Gómez Roig, & García-Algar, 2019:557). The term “vegan” was first used in 1944 by a group of vegetarians who broke away from the Leicerster Vegetarian Society in England to create the Vegan Society (Greenebaum, 2012:129). The term, therefore was established by combining the first and last letters of “Vegetarian.” According to the initial intention for which these group of vegetarians, vegans were to avoid all animal products. The intention was to eliminate the exploitation of animals and conserve the environment. However, as time went by, many people started joining the group to advance the idea of veganism. The new entrants had various reason for which they supported the idea of veganism. Some did that for health-related issues, others were looking to preserve biodiversity, while for others, economic constraints whereby they are unable to meet the expenses for animal products have forced them to join this group. This, therefore, has led to some noticeable veganism trends in the culinary that have been studied and researched by different authors. Thus, this is an illustration of some of the literature highlighting veganism trends in the culinary industry.
3.2 Statistical facts About Veganism
The global vegan food market has been expanding over the years as many people realize the importance of plant-based food (Research and Markets, n.d). As illustrated by Research and Markets (n.d), vegan food market in the culinary industry was valued at $14.2 billion in 2018, a value that is expected to rise to $31.4 billion by 2026. Therefore, the report indicate that vegan food market will register a CAGR of 10.5% from 2019 to 2026 (Research and Markets, n.d). The rise in preferences for vegan food has been linked to the growing cases of health disorders thus an increase in the number of health-conscious consumers (McConnell, 2020:01). Therefore, the trend indicate that vegan food market will be growing in the future.
The culinary industry has been changing especially over the past 5 years to include plat-based diet in their menus (Berardy, 2015:5). With the rising cases of veganism, food joints and supermarkets are being forced to change their operation to meet the rising demand for plant-based meals. According to Berardy (2015:5), veganism is expected to be the largest trend of the decade as many people realize the importance of plant-based diet. Therefore, for most food joints like fast food restaurants to survive in future, they will have to incorporate vegans in their diet.
Another important data about the future of vegan food market is depicted in the United Kingdom. In 2018, the U.K. emerged as the country with the highest number of new vegan products (Askew, 2019). However, these products were being launched to meet the high demand. The demand for vegan product in the U.K. was higher compared to that of Germany which was the country with the largest vegan population (Askew, 2019). Reports from the vegan society in the U.K. demonstrated that the demand for meat-free products increased by 987% in 2017 (Askew, 2019). The increase in vegan population in most countries has been linked to the advice from doctors and the urge by people to live a longer life. Therefore, this is a trend that is expected to grow as more people realize the importance of avoiding animal-based foods.
3.3 Veganism Trends in the Culinary Industry
Vegan food market has been growing as a result of the increased awareness on the importance of vegan diet (Shani, Belhassen & Soskolne, 2013). The countries that have recorded high vegan populations are North America, Europe, and Asia Pacific (Grandviewresearch.com. 2019). Moreover, some people tend to become vegans as they aim to avoid animal cruelty and also to avoid the outbreak of pandemics (Lingel, 2018). The graph below illustrates the vegan food market in the United States:
Fig 1: Illustration of the U.S. Vegan food market
The graph indicates that the vegan food market in the United States has been growing constantly from 2015 (Grandviewresearch.com. 2019). Although most of the growth has been linked to people’s lifestyles by many reports, Grandviewresearch.com (2019) provides a different view on the same as the report state that distribution channel and products insights have played a key role in the growth of this market. In 2018, dairy products made a larger percentage in the product segment in culinary industry accounting for more than 50% of the industry’s revenue (Grandviewresearch.com, 2019). However, there is a growing demand for alternative food because a large percentage of the world population is lactose intolerance (Grandviewresearch.com, 2019). Therefore, the availability of foods like yogurt, ice cream, cheese, and snacks has attracted the attention of non-vegetarians, widening the consumer base of this segment.
A large population of the residents of United States over the age of 17 are vegan (Farrelly & Mitchell, 2021). Between 2012 to 2017, google search for ‘vegan’ quadrupled attracting more vegetarians and ‘gluten-free’ searches (Farrelly & Mitchell, 2021). According to the recent food industry report, plant-based product consumers and diary alternatives are increasing as determined by the number of sales being generated in this segment (Véron, 2016:293). For example, compared to 2017 sales in the vegan market, the sales grew by 20% in 2018 whereby the total sales topped $3.3 billion (Farrelly & Mitchell, 2021). The trend demonstrates that as time goes by, many people are realizing the importance of becoming Vegans. The trend is said to be beneficial in terms of finances and health.
Almond milk is one product that has gained massive popularity as demonstrated by its sales in 2016. Almond milk alone has a worldwide had a market value of $1.86 billion in 2006 (Farrelly & Mitchell, 2021). Additionally, the value of this product is expected to rise above $5 billion by 2024 (Farrelly & Mitchell, 2021). Asia pacific has been the region with the lowest sales in terms of vegan products especially almond milk. However, as discussed by Christopher, Bartkowski and Haverda (2018:55) this region is likely to follow the trend with sustainability and reducing ecological footprints without sacrificing the taste of other vegan products.
The share of plant-based milk has increased by 3.1% while that of dairy milk has reduced by 5% (Shani, Belhassen & Soskolne, 2013). As many people continue to become vegetarians, the share of dairy milk is expected to decline further by another 11% globally by 2024 (Shani et al., 2013). Moreover, a lot of research is being conducted to ensure that lab-grown meat tastes like the real meat. As a result, many people are investing in this industry to ensure that the expected trend of veganism in the dairy market is achieved (Saari, U.A., Herstatt, Tiwari, Ozgur & Mäkinen, 2020). As a result, meat companies have began to enjoy new markets being developed as a result of research in plant-based dairy products.
3.4 Factors Responsible for Adopting a Vegan Lifestyle
3.4.1 Health Concerns
People change their lifestyles for different reasons. Similarly, the mode of eating of a person changes because of underlying factors, most of which are the reasons why vegan market is increasing globally. Health reasons form the primary reason why people tend to become vegetarians (Hindustan Times. 2017). The first concern in term of health is the urge to loss weight. Many people have learned of the dangers of being overweight, therefore, most are looking for means to reduce weight. As discussed by Hindustan Times (2017), most doctors have advised their clients to reduce their intake of animal products and instead, replace them with plant-based diet.
Vegan diets are efficient are reducing the risks of heart diseases (Glick-Bauer & Yeh, 2014:4823). Glick-Bauer, and Yeh (2014:4823) and Hindustan Times (2017) concur that many people are becoming vegans due to the instructions they receive from their doctors concerning the dangers of meat intake. Most people have now understood that the intake of meant and other dairy products increases the chances of a person getting heart diseases. More than 49% Vegans cited health concerns as the reason for changing their diets (Hindustan Times. 2017).
3.4.2 Animal Welfare
In contemporary society, people have woken up to animal mistreatment. Therefore, it is the responsibility of human beings to avoid meat as a way of safeguarding the lives of animals (Stoll-Kleemann & Schmidt, 2017:1264). Human beings have a responsibility to keep and maintain biodiversity, which is also felt through the existence of animals. Citing this moral compulsion, Stoll-Kleemann and Schmidt (2017:1264) state that many people are avoiding to be hypocrites who support animal welfare and then eating meat. The preservation of animal welfare has been felt extensively in Britain whereby 54% of vegans claim that they cannot eat meat as they want to preserve biodiversity (Hindustan Times. 2017).
3.4.3 Health Food Bloggers
Many health bloggers are using their online platforms to educate people on how to keep fit. Health fitness has, for a long time been a profitable niche for most bloggers as they know many people are looking for ways to keep fit (Hindustan Times. 2017). Most of these bloggers are plant-based, therefore, they use own experience to educate people on what they should eat and what to avoid. As a result, 16% of British citizens joined the vegan market due to the influence they got from their best health bloggers (Hindustan Times. 2017).
3.4.4 Public Campaigns and Economy
Different people and organizations are coming up with public campaigns to sensitize people on the importance of avoiding meat. For example, Jamie Oliver’s meat-free Mondays is one such campaign that is influencing the decisions made by people in terms of what they eat (Hindustan Times. 2017). Furthermore, it is known that meat and dairy products are expensive compared to other plant-based foodstuffs. With the many expenses to be met in a family, people are cutting on their spending on food. Therefore, the best option for such people is becoming vegans (Shani, Belhassen & Soskolne, 2013).
3.5 Barriers of Being vegan
Although veganism is a trend that is expected to grow over the next decade, there are people who still oppose the idea of becoming a vegan (Le, 2019). However, these people have different reasons, which most when analyzed are advantageous to both the environment and the relationship among people and animals. One barrier to becoming a vegan as discussed by Le (2019) is non-vegans considering vegan foods as heavily processed. For instance, Silva Souza, Atkinson, and Montague (2020) gives a scenario where a non-vegan was concerned about lack or scarcity of choline in most vegan diets. This is a barrier to many people becoming vegans as they start feeling that if they do, they will be lacking some essential nutrients in their bodies.
Some opposer of the idea of becoming a vegan also argue that veganism is dangerous to the environment (Silva Souza et al., 2020:11). The concern is genuine as in most cases, vegans have to clear forests to create room for soya plantation. Therefore, those who are concerned about the environment and biodiversity will discourage this idea. Instead of people becoming vegans, they are encouraged to save the forests by eating meat and other dairy products (Silva Souza et al., 2020:11). Additionally, the airfreight food that is linked to veganism emits greenhouse gases due to the burning of plastics (Silva Souza et al., 2020:11). Therefore, instead of using this type of food, its better for people to consume animal-based products and conserve the environment.
Moreover, there are individual barriers linked to becoming a vegan (Le, 2019). In most cases, people are citing their attachment to foods like meat and fish where they find it hard to ceased from them. Additionally, Le (2019) mentions the case where people are staying together. In such a condition the ones who want to be becoming vegans will find it hard because of the influence of the other people. It is evident that when preparing most of the dairy foods like meat, the aroma is strong that a person will find it hard to pass by without having a taste of it. Therefore, these people find it hard to abandon their past lives and start afresh as vegans. The challenge of attachment, although it seems small, has affected the ability of some people becoming vegans.
Lack of availability of vegan foods is another barrier to people who want to be vegans (Silva Souza et al., 2020:12). Le (2019) discusses some situations when vegan foods are rare. For example, as social beings, people go out to parties and eat outs, most of which do not consider the presence of vegan people. Therefore, when these people get to their parties, they have to do what their peers are doing to avoid being judged negatively (Silva Souza et al., 2020:12). A common point is when vegans lack food on menus or they are provided with situations when they are supposed to explain in details for waiters to understand what they want. This becomes a barrier as some people find it abnormal to express themselves for long in eating joints. Therefore, as Le (2019) discusses, this is a consumer trend that although people are turning out as vegans, there is a population that find it hard to fully become vegans due to the environment and the people around them.
However, research has illustrated different ways that can be used by a person to avoid these barriers of becoming a vegan. The main approach that has been used by most vegans and proved successful is having enough education (Bryant, 2019). Most people, according to Bryant (2019) managed to become vegans by researching more on veganism and thus educating themselves. In this way, it is regarded that these people managed to learn some of the ways to challenge those around them on the importance of becoming a vegan. On of the primary source of information in this case is social media (Silva Souza et al., 2020:15). Through social media, most vegans were able to find useful information like recipes, products, debates, and eating out less. Such information proved essential to them as they got ways of preparing food vegan that suites their desires.
3.6 Environmental impacts of vegan diet in comparison to non-vegan diet.
Awareness has grown about how the choices of food and beverages produced and consumed may affect the environment (Rosi, Mena, Pellegrini, Turroni, Neviani, Ferrocino, & Scazzina, 2017:3). This impact greatly varies with different types of diet. Vegan based diet has shown an optimal negative impact on the environment compared to non-vegan diet. Chai, van der Voort, Grofelnik, Eliasdottir, Klöss, and Perez-Cueto (2019:1) indicate that vegan diet emits the lowest GHG. However, the same results could also be achieved with a non-vegan diet if meat and dairy products were reduced substantially rather than being excluded wholly (Chai et al, 2019:01).
The impact of non-vegan diet on the environment is mostly negative with little or no positive impact. Beef in particular emits large proportions of greenhouse gas and also damages land and water sources (Eswaran, 2018). While the non-vegan diet may seem to be the culprit of damaging the environment, there are some vegan foods and products that come with a heavy cost on our environment. The production, storage, and transportation of some vegan foods damage the environment hugely as their consequences are non-unintended (Cottlle, 2018). For example, when there is a shortage of fruits in the USA, they may need to be airlifted into the country thus being the cause of air pollution (Eswaran, 2018).
Land has not also been spared with the vegan diet. Like the non-vegan diet, a vegan diet has led to massive deforestation to create space for farmland (Henderson, 2019). A mature avocado tree needs up to 209 liters to survive. Other fruits also use extremely large amounts of water to survive where they are irrigated. These are fruits and plants that were originally adapted to certain conditions that are not present in their current location (Eswaran, 2018).
3.7 Economics of vegan diet compared to non-vegan diet.
Concerns ranching from animal welfare to environmental sustainability have shown a significant increase number of vegans. Consumers have begun to realize that the vegan diet has so many positive impacts on their lifestyle which also include cutting down the cost of food in their budget. Food produced as a result of a shift from a non-vegan diet to veganism could feed additional 350 million people in the US alone (Eswaran, 2018). A Vegan diet could potentially reduce US GDP by 1% when there is an offset of growth of other plant-based markets (Eswaran, 2018).
As much as there is more awareness about veganism and an increase in the number of people shifting to it, there is a rise in meat consumption globally (Mulvany & Shanker, 2019). Developing countries like China that have traditionally been a plant heavy-diet, have shown a significant increase in meat consumption, especially in its younger population (Low, 2020). Investors have seen the potential in vegan economy. New product category of food that taste and feel like meat, cheese, and milk have emerged (PETA, 2018). This has led to an enormous investment to the lifestyle even with people who don’t consider themselves as vegans. Examples of startups like Beyond Burger have seen funders like Bill Gates being interested. Barclays Plc expects the meat alternative industry to grow to $140 billion in the next ten years (Mulvany & Shanker, 2019).
Arid and semi-arid areas do not support farming of plants as a source of livelihood. Shifting to a vegan diet would make farmers living in those areas lose their source of income which is the rearing of livestock (Galer, 2017). This would mean that they change their carriers to other alternatives and in the case of no other opportunities then there would be massive unemployment among the communities (Galer, 2017).
3.8 Economics and environmental effects on the future of veganism
Veganism has grown from a small number of activists to a large community with a significant impact on the economy, environment, and health of human population. With this kind of growth, the future of veganism is closely monitored. Vegan diet has affected the economy and its impact can project what the future has hold. Converting the economies to a vegan based economy would have drastic effects on the environment; a future most vegans try to escape (Cottle, 2018).
Vegans should understand that crops grown for livestock take a large part of farming land. When we move from rearing livestock to plant farming there is a problem of waste management produced by the crops. People have started to realize that all waste coming from plant-based farming is utilized in animal farming and therefore can’t be ignored. There is no other use of the wastes. In the absence of animal farming, the only way to get rid of crop waste is to burn the biomass, an act that accounts for 11% of man-made methane emissions (Cottle, 2018). In the UK alone, production of domestic meat and dairy products is more stable compared to the production of fruit and vegetables which is highly unsustainable. This makes the future of veganism not so promising, at least for now (Cottle, 2018).
The largest meat producer in US (Tyson Foods Inc..) announce it will be creating its own plant-based products (Bawab, 2019). The vegan bandwagon has swept major chains like Starbucks, Taco Bell, and Chipotle which are now offering vegan options because consumers ask for them (Animal Outlook, 2017). These actions by well-known brands push the vegan lifestyle to higher heights, giving veganism a promising future. Fast food chains that can’t give vegan options are feeling left behind (Animal Outlook, 2017).
CHAPTER 4: METHODOLOGY
The study was conducted to examine the future of veganism in the culinary industry. There are various trends, which according to previous studies, demonstrate that veganism is a growing phenomenon in different countries (McConnell, 2020:01). Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to assess and analyze veganism trends in the culinary industry. From the study, it would then be established how veganism will be projected in the near future. Although studies included in the literature review demonstrated that veganism is deemed to expand, it was necessary to conduct a ground study to back up this information. There must be factors pushing many people to become vegans, and these would be established better through interaction. Specifically, the study sought to answer how veganism will be projected in the culinary industry in the future. The study applied both primary and secondary research methodologies. A systematic review was conducted for the secondary research while semi-structured interview was used for the primary research. Furthermore, the inductive design was found appropriate for the research. This chapter is organized into four sections: (a) research methods, (b) research design, (c) data collection, and (d) participants.
4.2 Research Methodology
Qualitative research methodologies were preferred for this research. The approach was adopted for this study as it aids researchers to gain a more in-depth perspective of the topic at hand (Joyner, Rouse, & Glatthorn, 2013). In this case, through qualitative research methodologies, the research could gain a more understanding of the future of veganism in the culinary industry. In the perspective of any research, a qualitative design is defined as any method in which results are not obtained using statistical procedures or other quantification methods (Snyder, 2012). Therefore, the emphasis in this type of research is a deep understanding of relevant themes, experience, and opinions instead of numbers and figures. However, although the data is based on a theoretical structure, Hennink, Hutter, & Bailey (2020) claim that it should be a guideline and not a theory.
4.3 Secondary Research Methodologies
4.3.1 Literature Search
Desk research was a crucial part of this research as it was necessary to have an understanding of what past research found concerning the future pf veganism in the culinary industry. According to Makowska (2013:83), desk research is well executed if different resources from different databases are compared. Therefore, the study focused at finding government publication on veganism, magazines, newspapers, and past research article on the future of veganism in the culinary industry. Information from these sources would be compared based on the established themes to aid in answering the research question.
During the entire research period, the following databases were used: Ovid Medline, PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Social sciences Abstracts, Academic search premier, social sciences citation index, and PsycINFO. These online databases were the best as they contained literature from diverse fields including health and food and nutrition. As a result, they were effective at finding the articles relevant for this study. Below is a summary of the search terms used to get the relevant articles from the internet:
Key Word Search Volume
Veganism trends 45,268
veganism in the culinary industry 87,457
vegetarianism and veganism 109,256
Economies of veganism 40,030
Importance of veganism for the environment.
Table 1: Research Key Words
At the start of the research, the search was limited to sources published between 2010 and 2020. However, it became imperative to look at some studies published before 2010 for comparative purposes and also to increase the yield of possible studies. Finally, to identify possible unpublished sources, confidential emails were sent to two authors who had published two or more articles on the concept of veganism in the culinary industry.
4.3.2 Inclusion Criteria
• Studies published between 2000 and 2020.
• Type of publication: Only the original studies were included in the research. This was purposely to realize the challenges experienced by researchers.
• The title of the article. The titles were checked to ensure that they contain information on veganism and culinary industry.
4.3.3 Exclusion Criteria
• Date of Publication: Studies published before 2000 were excluded as they were regarded to contain outdated information that does not reflect current trend of veganism in the culinary industry.
• Articles whose titles did not clearly reflect the idea of veganism.
• Reviews and editorials of studies were also excluded.
However, not all these articles were relevant for the research question. Additionally, for purposes of time and budget limitation, it was not easy to review all these articles. As a result, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines (Moher, 2013) was applied. The criteria for which this approach was applied is illustrated in the following figure:
4.4 PRISMA Diagram for the Systematic Review
4.5 Literature Review
The literature was organized and structures chronologically. To get a clear illustration of the changes that have happened in a given field, it is necessary to organize the different literature on the topic chronologically based on the flow of events (Cronin, Ryan, & Coughlan, 2008:41). The topic of veganism and how it has been viewed by people has been on for a long time. However, the perceptions of people concerning it have been changing over the years as people realize the importance of becoming vegans (Li, Liu, Cai, & Scott, 2020). The guidelines provided by Randolph (2009:13) on organizing a literature review was crucial in this case as it aided in planning the literature based on how the themes related to the topic have been changing over history. Therefore, the literatures were organized according to how topics have changed, their definitions, then the major time periods of the change as illustrated by researchers.
The following themes emerged from the review of the selected literatures:
• Veganism is increasing in the culinary industry.
• Veganism is good for health as it aids in the prevention of heart-related ailments.
• Economical, veganism is preferred by people as it is pocket-friendly.
• Some people are tended to become vegans with a view of preserving biosystems.
4.6 Primary Research
4.6.1 Research Instrumentation
It was necessary to find meaning of human experiences and how people identify veganism in the culinary industry. Therefore, phenomenological design was applied in this case. The importance of a phenomenological research approach is that it allows participants to describe their personal accounts of an issue based on their lived experience (Novikov, & Novikov, 2013). Therefore, this was important for this research as through it, the researches were able to explore different meanings of experience that most participants experienced either as vegans or what they learned from their friends and relatives who are vegans. However, the phenomenological includes the “interpretative process in which the researchers make an interpretation of the lived experience as detailed by participants” (Bachman, & Schutt, 2013).
Smith and Shinebourne (2012) transcendental or psychological phenomenological design was found to be appropriate owing to the fact that the study was aimed at illustrating the future of veganism in the culinary industry. The advantage of this approach is that it aims at describing the experiences of living people concerning the study questions as opposed to the researcher’s interpretation of what was presented in the research. As a result, this aspect was expected to lead to a fresh perspective on veganism and the trends exhibited in the culinary industry. Thus semi-structured interview was selected as data collection method as it would fulfill all these requirements for the study.
The phenomenological approach was found to be the most viable design for the study because it would be crucial in attaining the following:
1. To apply the necessary scientific convention for research in social science fields.
2. The methodology would be applied in adherence to a set of procedures with proper application.
3. To prove that the approach of data collection would be appropriate at eliciting implicit and explicit data from the subjects.
4.6.2 Sampling Strategy
In any study, the sampling technique used is determined by the type of phenomenological study, methods of data analysis and collection. If the focus of the study is to come with a general trend, for which the researchers have a prior knowledge, then both snowball and purposive sampling techniques are used. The snowball sampling approach is mainly used in situations where the sample is scarce and difficult to find (Adams, 2015). On the other hand, purposive sampling is applied in situations where the relevant sample is available and easy to find (Adams, 2015). Therefore, for the purposes of this study, both purposive and snowball sampling were used to select those who will participate in the research.
Before the interviewees were conducted, existing articles, researches, and literature were explored. These were the documents used to make questions that would be used in the interview and guide the understand of the general trends of veganism in the culinary industry. From these concepts, an interview guide find at the appendix section was developed. Therefore, through purposive sampling, study participant groups were selected and interviewed. There was a total of 10 interviewees who took part in the research.
4.6.3 Piloting the Research Instrument
A pilot study was conducted with 4 health practitioners who were specialist in the nutrition sector. However, these doctors wanted their details and recorded voices to be anonymous due to personal reasons. These doctors were interviewed at their places of work. For correct use of device, the interview was recorded so that it could be used for comparison later during the actual interview. When interviewing these doctors, attention was paid to body language and non-verbal cues and the way in which questions were asked and answered. The pilot provided insight into veganism trends in the culinary industry. This was so because the researcher was the primary data collection instrument. Furthermore, the interpersonal skills for the researcher were enhanced at this point. Finally, errors encountered during the pilot study were rectified and not repeated in the actual interview. An interview evaluation form was used in this pilot study to gauge the selection of participants so that the final interview would have qualified participants. The form is attached under appendix 5.
4.6.4 Conducting the Research
Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were the main tool for data collection. However, before the start of the interview, it was made known to the interviewees that the interview was for academic purposes only. This was necessary to eliminate any fear from the interviewees who would hide some details. Furthermore, it was made known to the interviewees that the interview was being conducted in the highest ethical standards. Therefore, the details of the interviewees remained anonymous.
The first phase of data collection was the distribution of interviews which would help participants to discuss veganism trends in the culinary industry. After familiarization with the participants, each interviewee was given 2 hours over which they would respond to given questions in a selected room. The interviewee was conducted between January and February 2021. The interviews were recorded for the purposes of being transcribed and used to develop themes that would illustrate the trends of veganism in the culinary industry. However, during the 2-hour window during which the interview was conducted, the interviewees were given breaks so as to refresh their minds. Finally, the participants were made aware that the interviews were being recorded, however, all the recordings would be confidential and anonymous. In such a way, no participant was afraid or worried about the use of the information that they were giving.
The interviews followed a formal process whereby at the beginning, the researcher and the interviewee introduced themselves to each other. This was purposely done for formality and create a rapport between the two. In this aspect, it was clear that the relationship between the researcher and the interviewer would be positive and that the discussion would lead to the identification of the expected trends in the culinary industry. In the process of asking questions, probing was an important aspect as the researcher sought to understand the lived experience of the interviewee regarding veganism. Another aspect present during the interviewing process were the incentives given to interviewees. For a cordial conversation, the interviewees were awarded vouchers which were expected to make them happy and willing to provide the information asked for. The advantage of incentives, as illustrated by Bonke and Fallesen (2010:91), is that they develop the confidence of interviewees in the interview. In this case, interviews feel confident and as a result, they provide any information asked for without fear. This is a good aspect in any interview as it aids in the elimination of biases that could tamper with the accuracy of the research. An excerpt of the interview used has been attached under appendix 1.
During the study, it was assumed that all interviewees will answer the questions honestly and that the are the people they reported to be. The second assumptions was that if all the interviewees responded to all question, they understood what was expected of them. Furthermore, it was assumed that if the participants understood the questions posed, they will give accurate and relevant answers. Another assumption was that the interviewees will not be affected with venue of the interview or fear the researcher. Finally, it was assumed that all the literature selected for the study will provide relevant and accurate information.
CHAPTER 5: DATA ANALYSIS
In every research, it is necessary to conduct data analysis to give the collected data meaning. Therefore, the purpose of this chapter is to analyze the data collected through the different methods outlined in chapter four. This is the chapter that will demonstrate if the data collected in the research answered the question, “What is the future if veganism in the culinary industry?” However, just like in chapter four, this chapter is conducted in line with the research methodology applied. The research approach must be detailed enough so that any person who will be interested in using the findings of the research can understand how the data was analyzed. Furthermore, this section identifies the different hitches encountered in the research. Therefore, these hitches have to be elaborated well to aid future researchers to avoid them. As a research is a continuous process, the data analysis section is crucial especially at providing the mechanisms used in the research and their advantages and disadvantages. In the future, these details will serve as a guide to those who will be interested in researching a similar topic. Furthermore, data analysis aids in the creation of the essential themes identified through the research. These are the themes that will be studies to identify the answer to the research question. Moreover, the themes will show the trends in the field and how people perceive the research question.
5.2 Method of Analysis
Desk research and semi-structured interviews were used in this research. Therefore, the first step towards the analysis was to transcribe the interviews to make it easy for them to be analyzed. Additionally, the data collected through desk research was organized in terms of the themes presented by each literature concerning the research question. In this way, it would be easy to compare and contrast the information presented by a given source with other sources. Thus, because the study majored on qualitative research design, qualitative thematic analysis was the method to analyze the data. The qualitative thematic method and how it was applied in this study is detailed as follows:
Qualitative research can use different types of analysis. However, the most common analysis methods used in qualitative studies include: theoretical proposition reliance, inductive analysis, cross-case synthesis, narrative analysis, inductive analysis, pattern matching, and thematic analysis (Yin, 2017). Thematic analysis has been in use for long, however, it was described as a method recently (in the late 1990s to 2000s). The basis of thematic analysis is data coding that was adopted from the traditional outlook of content analysis (Yin, 2017). Therefore, this is an approach that has been used by many researchers and scholars. As a result of this understanding, the method was adopted for this research as it was the most proven approach to give the expected results.
The stages used in thematic analysis are described differently by different authors. However, the core of the method, the coding perspective remained constant for all the studies in which the design was adopted (Boyatzis, 1998). One advantage of the thematic method is that it is less formalized, whereby, there is no specific outline that has to eb followed when using this method. However, emphasis is on context and interpretation. This is therefore, one reason that led to the selection of this analysis method in this research. The type of research, especially desk research and semi-structured interviews used required the interpretation of the data collected in line with veganism trends in the culinary industry. A formalized data analysis method would not be suitable in this context as some details pertinent to the research would be ignored. Therefore, according to the use of this method in past researches, it is an outlook that can be used to analyze any type of quality data like interviews, quality surveys, and focus groups by using either larger of smaller data sets. The importance of this is that the research is presented with an opportunity to view complex, dirty, and conflicting relationships evident in the real world. Additionally, the researcher has a chance to contribute to a given area of expertise as qualitative thematic analysis identifies the relationships and patterns created with the data. In this case, the researcher, having lived in contemporary society, has some knowledge in veganism and can contribute to the discuss concerning its future in the culinary industry. Therefore, qualitative thematic analysis had many advantages concerning the study.
A theme is a specific sematic pattern that is identified in the collected data (Peters, 2010). Through these themes, some manifested information is revealed. The focus of the research is to gain this manifested information as it is what is used to answer the research question. For example, a person speaks directly about health benefits of veganism, a factor that portray a positive effect of veganism to society. Moreover, themes contain latent content, which entails something that is not explicitly presented in an interview of data acquired through desk research. However, latent content is implied by the meaning of what an interviewer was trying to portray. From these two types of content, research can start gaining an insight that in turn leads them to a more succinct understanding of the research question.
Qualitative thematic analysis is crucial in data interpretation and is suitable when samples are predefined and determined before the start of the research (Alhojailan, 2012, p. 39). Additionally, the researcher can start analyzing the data at any time of the research as there is no a formalized procedure to be followed. Because of this flexibility, the research can be approached both inductively and deductively (Vaismoradi, Jones, Turunen, & Snelgrove, 2016). The difference between thematic analysis and other analytical methods is that thematic analysis requires a detailed theoretical and technological knowledge in approaches like thematic DA, interpretative phenomenological analysis, sound theory, and thematic decomposition analysis (Braun, Virginia, & Clarke, 2016). With these theoretical freedoms, this research analysis approach, the report produced is always rich, detailed, and complex. Therefore, the existence and the knowledge of the participants are detailed through this method. Constructively, the method can be used to illustrate how realities, events, and meanings affect the research or what they add that changes the perspective of the trend. Therefore, anyone who will use the research in future for secondary data will understand what was done in the research, how it was done and the outcomes.
Everything that has advantage must also contain some limitations. One limitation of this method is that it is too flexible, time-consuming, and descriptive. In this case, participants can be biased when giving their views as this method does not adhere to any formal pattern. A researcher will analyze the data based on his or her feelings; thus, this the method allows room that can be used be a person to be biased. Additionally, it is difficult to create data reliability when this method is used to analyze the data because it is more general. However, these shortcomings were not applicable in this research as the researcher was aware of how to avoid these shortcomings. For example, it was identified that these limitations are due to poor analysis and inadequate research questions. Therefore, these issues were addressed during the research to ensure that they do not present a challenge.
Research objectives, research questions, and methods affect the type of analysis method used. In the case of a thematic analysis, interview and data are coded to get the merging nodes and themes essential at answering the research questions. Additionally, through these themes, the patterns from the data are identified and compared (Braun, Virginia, & Clarke, 2016). However, content analysis would have been preferred if the researchers were working with big data like reports and policy documents. Additionally, it can be applied to draw data from large content or triangulation purposes.
5.3 Software Used
The Atlas Ti program was found necessary for this study and it was used during content analysis among participants. The software was adopted because it allows computerized analysis of data from qualitative sources. Through this tool, the researchers were able to organize and interpret both textual and multimedia data through the multiple innovative features of the software. Moreover, the software allows for the analysis of data from various sources like video, texts, images, and data captured from social media platforms like Twitter. Because of these features, the software is accurate in reducing large amount of data to smaller bits that can be easily managed. The crucial concept in this software is data coding which was done perfectly by the researchers. Thus, the operation of the software was in line with qualitative thematic analysis which entails coding. In the Atlas Ti software, coding is achieved through underlining, coloring, or annotating the codes.
In conjunction to the use of the software, Van Kaam approach of interview analysis was applied as it is was modified by Moustakas. The approach was relevant to the study as the researcher wanted to uncover all the details that would pertain to the establishment of accurate results in relation to the study. Then method is accomplishment in the following steps:
1. Listening carefully to the interviews as presented and recorded to describe the necessary data and experience in relation to the lived experience of the interviewees.
2. Carefully examining the interviews and transcripts. This is important in finding any signs of the descriptions and the views of the participants in relation to their experience and mindfulness.
3. Grouping the variants into themes.
4. Analyzing the meaning of any feelings presented by the interviewees.
5. Developing a structural description of the interviews.
6. Creating a combination of textual and structural descriptions and analyzing them to find any correlation.
The six steps of qualitative thematic data analysis presented by Braun, Virginia, and Clarke (2016) were used in this study as follows:
5.3.1 Step 1: Exploring the Source (Transcript)
In the first step, the researchers started familiarizing themselves with the data. Because most of the interviews were recorded, they were transcribed to make it easy for the data to be worked on. To achieve this, the researchers went through the entire interview data while taking notes. At this point, the preliminary ideas for codes that could describe the content were also marked. Because the study took a form of exploratory, the entire content of the interview was transcribed. Because of a limited budget, the researchers could not pay an expert to transcribe the data. The work was fully done by the researchers.
5.3.2 Step 2: Generation of Initial Codes
Codes were assigned to the data based on how the interviewees presented them. In this step, the Atlas Ti was essential as it provided an opportunity for some parts of the transcribed data to be annotated. The research interviews were uploaded into the Atlas Ti software for it to be coded, annotated, and have the information compared. “A priori” and emergent codes were used to acquire the expected outlook in the data and the information. Additionally, it was realized that if emergent codes are used in the analysis, it would be easy to show the views and other concepts illustrated by the interviewees. Moreover, the themes expressed in the research including behavioral actions, emotional outlooks, and substance cravings would also be incorporated in the research, thus avoid any form of biasness. However, in the course of applying the codes, the data was read severally to ensure clarity and consistency. Furthermore, the researchers were careful at this point to assign only codes that will allow data comparison at the end of the analysis. An excerpt of code generation exercise with the Atlas Ti software is attached under appendix 2.
5.3.3 Step 3: Searching for Themes
This point required active interpretation of the codes and data. To achieve this, the researchers started by looking at the list of codes and their associated extracts and relate the codes to broader themes illustrating an interesting fact about the data. This was an iterative process as the researchers were moving codes back and forth trying to form themes. To make things easy, the researchers decided to write the codes on sticky notes that could be moved around thus illustrate the relationship between the codes. The movement of these sticky notes provided an opportunity for researchers to visualize the relationship between the codes and themes. Moreover, the researcher figured out that this was the best method that could be used to understand the level of each theme. With this perspective, it was easy to identify the themes that could be sub-themes. Additionally, it was realized that not all codes could be translated into themes, some of the codes were found interesting. Therefore, these were the codes that eventually became themes. Those codes that were found redundant were eliminated so that the results would not be biased. However, these codes were kept in an extra file as it was figured that they might be of help in the future before the research was completed.
5.3.4 Step 4: Reviewing Themes
The themes identified in step three were reviewed and refined in this section. This step involved the identification of broader data structures that could be used to answer the research question. The important aspect done by researchers at this point was to use topic and sub-topics which could be defined by the captured data patterns. The focus was on the term “topic” as defined by Braun, Virginia, and Clarke (2016) that it must “Cover something crucial about data concerning a research question and represents some level of template answers or meaning in a data set” (P. 82). However, because these patterns contain many aspects, they were found to be wider than codes. Therefore, the created themes were manually arranged and checked if they were appropriate with the data. To achieve this aspect, the researchers reviewed all the coded data. From this step, additional themes were identified and checked with a thematic map for the analysis of the results. The other thing done by researchers at this point was read through the transcripts related to the codes to see if they support the assigned theme. It was also easy to see if there were some contradictions and if the themes overlap. In case a theme was found to be too broad or cases of overlapping identified, the researchers separated the theme to get two themes. If it was difficult to separate the theme, coding was then done again. It was established that in case a theme appeared irrelevant for the study, the coding section was done according to the study. Therefore, it was repeated for the specific irrelevant theme to acquire a theme that had meaning for the study. Some of the themes have been presented under appendix 3.
5.3.5 Step 5: Defining, Naming, and Grouping themes into Categories
Codes relating to the same category were grouped. In this step, sub-themes were also arranged under the same heading to show their links. After that, the duplicate and irrelevant themes were removed and kept in a separate file. Thus, it was time to name the themes that were left after being found relevant to the research. The provision of qualitative thematic analysis that all themes must be descriptive if possible were followed in this research so that the posed questions could be answered effectively. In the description of the themes, the participants described the interesting facts about the themes and why they were found interesting. In defining these themes, Braun and Clarke’s (2016) provision that the themes should be defined in terms of their essence was applied. In the section of describing the themes, the researchers focused at illustrating the story told by each theme and how the story relates to other themes and veganism trend in the culinary industry. The focus at this stage was to ensure that the researchers could tell a coherent story about the theme. If it became hard to tell a coherent story about a given theme, the researchers went back to step four and reworked the theme. The process was repeated for each theme until the researchers were convinced that all the themes were related to the overall research question. The process was vital as it aided in the reductions of the themes and sub-themes into manageable levels for clarity of the structure. Finally, the coded data were exported in Microsoft word and Excel.
5.3.6 Step 6: Writing a Report
This was the final step where the researchers had to produce a report on what they did. The focus of the researchers when writing the report was making as detailed as possible so that those who read the report could evaluate the quality of the research. The researcher reported on the account of what they had done to come up with the information. They accounted for both the research and what was done in the analysis section. In this case, it was clear that the readers will have a clear view of step-by-step procedure taken to gather the information. The description of the themes was used as the basis for the final report. However, in the report, a demonstration of what the interviewees said was applied through the use of quotes on how they said it. The recorded audios of the interviews could not be used as it was agreed during the interview that they will be confidential. The researchers could not violate the rights of the participants by disclosing the audios.
The report was split into two parts. The first part contained the summary of the findings in as detailed by the researchers through presentation. The second part contained the background information on how the research was conducted. Additionally, the section was written to inform the audience on how data was analyzed for the different themes to be attained. The researchers did this to ensure that people who were interested with the conclusion part alone could stick to that while those with questions about the research could move to the detailed section. Thus, according to the researchers, organizing the report in this manner would ensure validity of the research and provide a good future reference in case a given aspect of the research was forgotten. Any person could, as a result, find this work relevant as it catered for the needs of all the potential audience who might be interested in a specific information.
The study and the analysis of the collected data led to the results expected to answer the research question. The results indicate that veganism is a growing trend as many people identify the importance of veganism. From the results, it is evident that health factors are the main reasons people tend to adopt vegan lifestyles. Other factors identify including the protection of the biosystem, harsh economic factors, health and lifestyle bloggers, and celebrities who become vegans. Finally, the results indicate that most customers feel that vegan trends will keep rising in the culinary industry as it started from 2015. As many people get enlightened on matters health, they will tend to adopt vegan lifestyles. These results are presented in appendix 4.
CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Veganism has been on the rise as depicted through the global vegan food markets expanding over the years. The study has demonstrated that there is a growing trend of veganism in the culinary industry. The trend is always positive as many people realize the importance of veganism. The study has presented some of the essential statistical facts regarding veganism in the culinary industry. The most important of these statistics is the value of vegan food market in the culinary as it has been changing over the years. According to literature and the secondary data used in the study, the value of vegan food market has been growing tremendously over the years. The first study was conducted in 2018 where it was anticipated that the value of this industry will be more than double by 2026.
As has been identified, veganism is on a steep rise in the western countries. In terms of the global vegan markets, western countries like the United States of America, Canada, and the United Kingdom have a high rise in veganism compared to other countries, especially third world countries. This, in most cases, has been attributed to lifestyle standards and the rate at which people are getting informed on the importance of a good and healthy lifestyles. The developed countries tend to have efficient health systems that communicate important messages to people. Thus, as the message keeps on reaching more people, the trend will continue growing. Parents will as well want their children to be vegans based on the importance they know. As a result, veganism is anticipated to keep growing worldwide. The global vegan market, on the other hand, will keep growing in the culinary industry. Eventually, a maximum point will be attained when veganism will be leading in the culinary industry.
As has been identified through the research, health factors have been the primary factor for the rising veganism trend. People are adopting vegan lifestyle to increase their lifespan and avoid some of the diseases linked to eat animal products. For instance, most of those who were interviewed claimed that the issue of heart diseases is highly linked to eating animal products like meat and eggs. In most cases, doctors advice people to avoid animal products if they want to be safe from heart diseases. As a result, many people tend to follow doctor’s advice and avoid animal products. As doctors keep advising people in this manner, global vegan population will keep growing.
The second reason for adopting a vegan lifestyle has been the urge to maintain the shape of the body and celebrity factors. Obesity has been linked to the consumption of animal products. This issue has been a challenge in the developed countries where there is over-consumption of animal products. Most lifestyle instructors have been telling people to avoid animal products if they want to maintain the shape of their bodies. Furthermore, the study has indicated that most celebrities want to maintain their public figure thus, they try to avoid food that will make them obese. When such people are interviewed on how they managed to preserve the shapes of their bodies, they claim they converted into veganism that has been of help to their bodies. Therefore, the audience also try to emulate them as they too want to have a decent body shape.
Finally, health bloggers and those who fight for animal rights were also factors for adopting vegan lifestyle. The study has demonstrated that many people rely on the internet for relevant information concerning some of the challenges they face. Health and lifestyle bloggers have maximized on this to teach people how to maintain a healthy lifestyle. Therefore, most of them are encouraging people to avoid animal products which have been linked to obesity and other health issues. People use this information and turn to veganism which, according to bloggers, is the way to go. Additionally, there are animal-rights activists who argue that human beings should be the custodians of animals. Therefore, instead of violating the rights of these animals by slaughtering and eating them, they should protect them. As animal activists, these people avoid hypocrisy by leading with example. They first become vegans then start attracting other people into veganism by telling them how unfair they are by killing animals. These have been identified as the primary reasons for adopting vegan lifestyle.
Most customers have illustrated that many people will be turned into vegans and force restaurants like the McDonald’s and KFC to change their menu. Some of these trends are already evident with some of these restaurants as most have started changing their diets by including vegan diet. With the changing outlook as many are expected to adopt vegan lifestyles, the culinary industry will have to restructure itself to accommodate the growing demand for vegan diets.
The study did not take into account the predicaments of veganism on human body. It is not clear if, by becoming a vegan, there are some crucial nutrients that will be lacked. There might be some nutrients that are only present in animal products and not in plant-based food. Therefore, a study has to be conducted in future in this perspective. Through the study, it should also be determined whether the nutrient can be established through supplements. This is an important information for vegans as they should know how to supplement their bodies with necessary nutrients to avoid being malnourished.
The second recommendation is on how to capitalize on the growing demand for veganism in the global market. Culinary industry will have to restructure itself to meet the growing veganism trend. However, the restricting process has not been detailed in this study. Therefore, it is necessary that future studies concentrate on this aspect. As an opportunity, players in culinary industry must be provided with an outline of how they will reposition themselves in the market. Depending on the results from this study, future studies in the industry will look at how the trend is growing. From this, they will be to develop new study that will guide the industry on how to respond to the demand.
Finally, on the issue of balance of nature, if animals are preserved for long, they will surpass the required population. Moreover, they will outweigh the ability of people to take care of them. Therefore, there needs to be an understanding in this aspect. It should be clear on what animal activist will do to ensure the ecosystem is balanced if animals are not slaughtered for food. Thus, this is a recommendation to future researchers on what they should aim to achieve. If all these recommendations are met, most details on the future and trends of veganism will be clear.
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0.1 Appendix 1: Interview Excerpt
Dear participants, here are the questions structured to aid in the collection of the necessary data concerning veganism trends in the culinary industry. We urge you to kindly respond to the questions with sincerity and uphold integrity during the entire process. Thank you.
Q1. Do you think veganism is expected to grow in the near future?
Q2. Which countries are experiencing the highest number of people becoming vegans?
 United States
 United Kingdom
Q3. What are the reasons for veganism in these countries?
 Health reasons
 Animal rights activism
 Health and safety bloggers
Q4: Does veganism impact the environment in any way?
Q5: If veganism is a growing trend, what should be done to meet the rising veganism trend?
Q6: Are doctors taking this advantage to push more people into becoming vegans?
0.2 Appendix 2: Atlasl Ti Software Code Generation
Interview Extract Codes
Personally, I’m not sure if the trend is growing or slowing Uncertainty
I thing veganism is a trend that is growing around the world but I’m not sure how it will be in the future. Acknowledgement of the growing veganism trend.
Although people say we should trust professionals like doctors, these professionals might take advantage to manipulate people into veganism Distrust of Professionals
The issue of veganism has been changing over the years. However, based on health issues, veganism will keep rising. Acknowledgement of the rising trend of veganism. Health as a reason for veganism.
0.3 Appendix 3: Turning Codes into Themes
• Depends on professionals
• Alternative Explanations Uncertainty
• Health factors
• Most depends on advice from doctors Health factors
• Misunderstanding of Science
• Biased statistics
• Maybe safety Misinformation
0.4 Appendix 4: Results
0.4.1 Reasons for Veganism
0.4.2 Veganism trend in Different Countries
0.4.3 Worldwide Veganism Trends
0.5 Appendix 5: Interview Evaluation Template