UGB362; Human Resource, Leadership; Gender,Ethnicity, and Inclusion – Diversity and Equality.

Human Resource, Leadership; Gender, Ethnicity, and Inclusion – Diversity and Equality.
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Contents
*Executive Summary*. 3
*Part One*. 4
*Introduction*. 4
*Causes of Discrimination and Inequality*. 4
*Impacts of Following Diversity and Equality*. 5
*Promoting Diversity and Equality*. 7
*Part Three*. 8
*Reflection of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Theories, Concepts and Techniques*. 8
*Conclusion*. 11
*References*. 12

*Executive Summary*
Labor is an essential part of development in the company in that it can either break or make the company. As such, labor is vital for the human resource of a company to consider various factors that are inclusive in their recruitment procedures. In doing so, not only does the company ensure quality input but also quality output and service delivery. Therefore, the company benefits from the labor force through service and product delivery of high quality which in turn ensures attraction of new clients and also retention of current clients hence the company growth experienced is assured through maintenance and continuance as well. However, to provide the maximum input from labor, the human resource management has to ensure that the company applies diversity and equality to guarantee that it benefits from inclusion. Company practice of diversity and equality reigns in benefits such as globalization which consequently creates and propagates company influence.

*Part One*
*Gender, Ethnicity, and Inclusion – Diversity and Equality* *Introduction*
Company diversity and equality is mainly portrayed through gender, ethnicity, and inclusion. In doing so, the company can enjoy the numerous benefits that accrue to diversity and equality. For instance, company diversity and equality ensure equal pay regardless of gender. As such, by ensuring diversity and equality in a company, vices linked to discriminative conduct are curbed and eliminated hence creating an environment that improves employee morale. Other benefits that companies directly derive from diversity and equality are the ability to recruit top talent in the industry and fortify company reputation. The application of diversity and equality in the workplace are implemented by the human resource departments as well as the leadership of companies. As such, the company human resource staff and administration should be aware of ethical practices regarding their employees. As diversity and equality must be extended to clients as well, they should also be mindful of methods that accommodate clients from different backgrounds cumulatively respecting the rights of their staff and customers. *Causes of Discrimination and Inequality*
Discrimination and inequality are encompassed in factors such as age, gender, race, sexuality, and mental or physical disability; hence, discrimination can occur in different forms to either employees or the clients. The portrayal of discrimination and inequality is portrayed through various experiences (Sharma, 2016, pp. 1). For instance, job vacancies can be advertised using specific descriptive words such as ‘white candidates preferred’ or ‘male candidates only to apply’ in addition to pre-employment screening. Another example includes the extension of gender-based discrimination by denying pregnant women promotions regardless of their qualifications or in other instances firing them from their jobs despite its stipulation as an illegal practice (Byron and Roscigno, 2014, pp. 436). As such, the continued malpractice of gender-based discrimination is reflective of the failure of some corporates inability to implement, practice, and maintain diversity and equality in the workplace. Also, its continued practice is suggestive that the vice is deep-rooted in workplaces and the society at large.
Leadership influence is also a recurrent issue in organizational discrimination. In some organization, prejudice is practiced because the staff emulates the leadership within the company. Moreover, political leadership has also exerted influence on organizations as the staff exercise their political opinions such as those of discriminative political leaders. As such, the practice of discrimination within organizations can be influenced by both internal and external factors, especially in leadership (Chan et al., 2012, pp. 84). Moreover, the propagation of the vice is backed by the lack of fortified rules, policies, and laws that punish organizational discrimination, thus increasing tolerance towards discrimination. *Impacts of Following Diversity and Equality*
Diversity and equality enable companies that practice it to enjoy several benefits that accrue to recognition of social inclusion. One of the ways to ensure that diversity and equality are attained is through the human resource management departments and the frameworks they implement. Frameworks integrated by the human resource management in the companies should ensure compliance with providing equal opportunities regarding employment as well as enable affirmative action on discrimination (Shen et al., 2009, pp. 235). In doing so, the companies can recognize differences among people through embracive measures that allow their inclusion.
A company that practices diversity and equality, either for moral or legal appropriations, enjoys several benefits, tangible and intangible, that accrue to its practice. Regardless of the intentions, one of the benefits that a company enjoys is through the company’s improvement of economic performance which in turn allows the company to be competitive (Rohwerder, 2017, pp. 2). For instance, the inclusion of diverse races in a company builds upon its reputation towards its clientele. As a result, the company increases its target market, which is attracted by the company’s value for racial diversity. Therefore, companies present their products and services into the market more sensitively (Rohwerder, 2017, pp. 4) compared to non-diverse competitors. Racial diversity in the company also ensures employee productivity increases and thus improving on the company’s growth evident through the contrast with companies that do not embrace diversity.
Organizational innovation is vital to the process of the growth and development of the company. Human resource management can be utilized in ensuring the innovative process of the organization by hiring a diversified workforce for the company (Dal Zotto, C. and Gustafsson, V., 2008, pp. 100). Through innovation, organizations can establish an equally diverse product and service output to suit a diverse market based on the suggestions by the staff from different backgrounds. In doing so, not only does the company explore entrepreneurial ventures through a better understanding of the client base, but also cultivates the same value among the staff. As such, the staff becomes highly motivated, as reflected by the improving overall company performance. In turn, innovation increases the organization’s competitiveness in the market thus raising the company profile in the industry against homogeneous organizations (Dal Zotto, C. and Gustafsson, V., 2008, pp. 102). Consequently, the company will attract top talent in the industry as most people prefer working in diversified organizations. Conclusively, an organization that practices diversity and equality generates its long-term success and sustainability. *Promoting Diversity and Equality*
Diversity and equality practices are presented in various forms. The practice of diversity is necessitated by the need of the company to grow and develop. Moreover, diversity and equality practices ensure that discrimination is curbed since it can be detrimental to the performance of a company. Discrimination can extend to societal disruptions through strikes, violence, and chaos. The damage to a company’s performance can be reflected through the declining number of investors and consequently the decrease in the share price. As such, specific measures have been laid out through policies such as legislative law and affirmative action which obligate companies into conforming to statutory requirements that ensure the practice of diversity and equality (Sharma, 2016, pp. 1). Moreover, the ethical conduct of human resource practitioners demands their response to discrimination through affirmative action to ensure that diversity and equality in the workplace are maintained.
Corporates also have access to tools such as CSR which acts as an indicator of the companies’ practices which support and promote diversity and equality. The integration of corporate social responsibility with human resource management can be implemented in companies to ensure companies attain and enhance a company’s ability to practice diversity and equality (Boulouta and Pitelis, 2014, pp.351). For instance, CSR provides standards which the company is measured against to ensure diversity and equality performance. In doing so, the company is conformed into abiding with rules and policies which favor equality and diversity either for moral or legal obligations.
Organizational leadership provides the staff with role models to look up to in their actions regarding the company. As such, it is essential for leaders to ensure that they lead by example in promoting organizational equality and diversity which the staff can emulate (Chan et al., 2012, pp. 80). Consequently, leading from the top, beginning from the senior organizational management can prioritize the organization’s practice of equality and diversity. Therefore, during senior managerial appointments, organizations should ensure that prospective senior managers align with values that promote and support equality and diversity. A demonstration of commitment from the organization’s leadership creates a culture of equality and workplace diversity, which the other staff members will follow suit. Also, the implementation of diversity and equality requires constant communication between the organizational leaders and its staff (Chan et al., 2012, pp. 82). To ensure that diversity and equality are maintained, senior administration needs to continuously communicate with the rest of the organization’s staff on its significance to raise awareness. In doing so, open discussions about diversity and equality will be explored as well as cultivate new ways of improving organizational diversity and equality for the clients and staff. *Part Three* *Reflection of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Theories, Concepts and Techniques*
Entrepreneurial activities are viewed as the driving forces towards the growth of several economies due to the distinctive attribute of identifying opportunities that generate income from solving problems encountered daily. Also, entrepreneurial ventures are a means of achieving independence from routine work since they are based on the intent of following one’s passion. However, contrary to popular misconception, entrepreneurial ventures are not always successful at first. As such, entrepreneurs are forced to learn from previous mistakes to ensure the success of their enterprises. Moreover, the learning curve in entrepreneurship is continuous; an attribute credited to the uniqueness of the venture as most ventures are as distinct as are the entrepreneurs (Chan, 2012, pp.74). Despite the evolving nature of entrepreneurship, some concepts are characteristic of entrepreneurship. Such features are presented through various concepts such as innovation, risk management, leadership, and creativeness. Therefore, entrepreneurial ventures provide different and unique lessons along the way through the introduction of various innovation theories, concepts, and the application of different techniques.
One of the vital lesson that entrepreneurship provides is an opportunity to learn to execute decisions affirmatively through the practice of leadership. For instance, leaders, as well as the human resource practitioners within the organization, are expected to discipline staff who do not practice diversity and equality towards their fellow workers and clients. By doing so, affirmative action in leadership can be credited for reducing the tolerance for discrimination in organizations. As such, the staff is obliged to offer quality services indiscriminately to their clients and treat fellow workers equally. Moreover, executing punishment conforms the workers to extend the same courtesy outside work as their behavior is reflective of the company’s values to the public (Boulouta and Pitelis, 2014, pp. 355). Also, leadership is a basic lesson in entrepreneurship as it also avails the entrepreneur with the teaching on the importance of establishing and executing a contingency plan. Contingency planning allows the entrepreneur’s ability to perform decisions in a time-effective manner and affirmatively in regards to solving a foreseen problem recognized within the business framework. As an entrepreneur, the success of the business is integrated into one’s ability to execute decisions, make plans as well as manage the team in ensuring the goals of the organization are achieved or surpassed within the planned periods. For instance, a contingency plan accommodates affirmative action as practiced by human resource managers. Situations which compromise equality and diversity in an organization demand affirmative action in dealing with discriminative staff and clients without compromising on the companies values. As such, it is vital for a team leader to recognize the importance of establishing an effective contingency plan to enable them to make effective decisions in dealing with recurrent and foreseen issues promptly.
Human resource management, finance, and legal matters operations are central to the success of any entrepreneurial venture. Human resource management ensures that the company complies with the rules, policies and laws that govern human resource practice without infringing on the rights of individuals (Janssens and Zanoni, 2014, pp. 325). In doing so, diversity, as well as equality, are maintained within the organizations’ values. On the other hand, financial operations are vital as they ensure the availability of enough organizational funds that ensure that corporate activities are streamlined (Kerr and Nanda, 2015, pp.445). The availability of funds enables the company to acquire resources in abundance and quality. For instance, enough funds will allow the company to hire the best staff in the industry due to its ability to acquire and retain their services (Kerr and Nanda, 2015, pp.451). In addition to human resource and financial operations, legal matters also provide essential lessons to entrepreneur. Legal processes ensure the company complies with the laws within its area of operations thus ensuring its activities do not conflict with the laws of the area thus allowing to continue with its operations in a law-abiding manner (Zahra, S.A. and Nambisan, S., 2012, pp.223). As such, legal frameworks ensure the companies compete in healthy environments, which can be beneficial through the attraction of investments and reduction of corruption in the industry. *Conclusion*
Entrepreneurship is vital for the overall economic growth of a country. Through entrepreneurship, critical lessons such as human resource and finance management, branding, and global expansion are cultivated among entrepreneurs to ensure the success of their innovative ventures. As such, an entrepreneurial venture that applies such vital lessons can compete effectively with its competitors present in the market. For instance, legal frameworks provide entrepreneurs with the opportunity to establish themselves and grow in environments that are healthy for the business. Also, contingency plans arm entrepreneurs with the essential skills that are necessary for dealing with foreseen problems promptly without infringing the rights of the staff or clients or compromising on their organizational values. Additionally, financial management enables the proper use of funds through the prioritization of activities that promote the growth and development of the company as well as ensuring its overall success. As such, entrepreneurship provides vital lessons that not only ensure company growth and development but also ensures the company retains success through the achievement or surpassing of the business goals.

*References*
Boulouta, I. and Pitelis, C.N., 2014. Who needs CSR? The impact of corporate social responsibility on national competitiveness. *Journal of business ethics*, *119*(3), pp.349-364.
Byron, R.A. and Roscigno, V.J., 2014. Relational power, legitimation, and pregnancy discrimination. *Gender & society*, *28*(3), pp.435-462.
Chan, K.Y., Moon-ho, R.H., Chernyshenko, O.S., Bedford, O., Uy, M.A., Gomulya, D., Sam, Y.L. and Phan, W.M.J., 2012. Entrepreneurship, professionalism, leadership: A framework and measure for understanding boundaryless careers. *Journal of Vocational Behavior*, *81*(1), pp.73-88.
Dal Zotto, C. and Gustafsson, V., 2008. Human resource management as an entrepreneurial tool. *International handbook of entrepreneurship and HRM*, pp.89-110.
Janssens, M. and Zanoni, P., 2014. Alternative diversity management: Organizational practices fostering ethnic equality at work. *Scandinavian Journal of Management*, *30*(3), pp.317-331.
Kerr, W.R. and Nanda, R., 2015. Financing innovation. *Annual Review of Financial Economics*, *7*, pp.445-462.
Rohwerder, B., 2017. Impact of diversity and inclusion within organisations.
Sharma, A., 2016. Managing diversity and equality in the workplace. *Cogent Business & Management*, *3*(1), p.1.212682.
Shen, J., Chanda, A., D’netto, B. and Monga, M., 2009. Managing diversity through human resource management: An international perspective and conceptual framework. *The International Journal of Human Resource Management*, *20*(2), pp.235-251.
Zahra, S.A. and Nambisan, S., 2012. Entrepreneurship and strategic thinking in business ecosystems. *Business horizons*, *55*(3), pp.219-229.

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