Statistical analysis

Spss data analysis
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Set A
The frequency of hypertension in the United States of America and its association with gender and race
Introduction
High blood pressure also called hypertension is a health condition in which the force of blood against the artery walls is high. It is defined as a blood pressure of systolic values above 140mm mercury and diastolic values of above 90mm mercury. Hypertension is one of the major risk factors associated cardiovascular diseases, and is also a component of the metabolic syndrome. It is caused by various factors such as consumption of a high salt, fat and cholesterol diet and leading a sedentary lifestyle.
Aside from the above mentioned high blood pressure may however be brought about by other uncontrollable factors such as family genetics or genetic factors influenced by race or gender.
Several studies have shown that there is a significant relationship between systemic blood pressures to race and gender with many stating that there is an association between blood pressures to both. Studies have shown the black race and female gender is associated with higher blood pressures and hypertension. There is however scarce evidence from a sufficient sample size to prove this and thus the observation remains highly theoretical.
1.1Background information
For a long time researchers have argued the association between skin pigmentation and blood pressure. One argument states that pigmentation alters calcium, vitamin D and parathyroid hormone levels thus influencing blood pressure.(Stephen R, 2014). Crystal C et al, 2018 evaluated whether albuminuria or black race modulates ambulatory blood pressure among adults enrolled in a DASH diet or control diet for 8 weeks, reductions measured in 24 hours night and daytime. The study suggested there was a significant interaction between diet and on change of ambulatory blood pressure per day. (Crystal C et al, 2018)
Gender has also been associated greatly with hypertension. A study on blood pressure and its association with gender, body mass index (BMI), smoking and family history among students in the university of Jordan revealed a significant gender difference regarding hypertension with males having more hypertension compared to females.(Husssein h et al, 2018)
2. Methods
2.1Data collection
Data was obtained from the National Household Survey on Drug abuse (NHSDA) data collected by the United States Department of Health and Human Services. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Office of Applied Studies.
2.2Statistical analysis
The data was analyzed using the IBM SPSS statistical package version 20. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the study population using modes medians and frequency counts and percentages for categorical variables. Comparisons between gender and diagnosis for high blood pressure and race and diagnosis for high blood pressure were done to assess the association between them using the Pearson’s correlation coefficient. The Independent sample t test was then used to determine the mean difference in occurrence of high blood pressure in both genders.

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