Q1: Sources of human behavior
The main causes and influences of human behavior in the field of psychology have been under study for many decades. Thus, nature and nurture has been used to illustrate these causes. Environmental aspects, as well as practices that affect directly or indirectly human behavior, are examined under nurture controversies while genetic and the heritage of personalities are studied under the nature of human beings. Nature and nurture comprise of ecological, biological, and evolution, contribute to the changes and trends in human behavior. For instance, the study of identical twins whose generic traits are similar has played a fundamental role in determining how genetic factors affect human behavior. Approximately about 50% of human behavior is contributed by the inheritance of genes from parents to the offspring.
Furthermore, evolutionary and environmental aspects, play a crucial role in shaping human behavior. The environmental factors may include parental supervision and guidance, peers, environmental conditions such as climate and weather, among other factors. Human beings are born with the ability to learn, understand, acquire knowledge and adapt to changes with the surroundings. Over the entire leaning learning process, there is interaction with other human beings and the environment as well which influences human behavior. Thus, it is very obvious that exposure, genetic inheritance, and environmental aspects affect human behavior.
Q2: The laws of perceptual organization According to Gestalt psychologists
There are specific trends in which human beings incorporate bits of sensory stimulation into expressive entities. The laws of the perceptual organization, according to Gestalt psychologists, are illustrated as follows.
Figure-ground perception: It is the ability of the visual system to break down an object under is under study or observation into the main object, and all that makes up the background. Usually, the main figure itself is the most fundamental point of view, and the rest becomes the background (Kahneman & Henik, 2017). Under this perceptual law, contrast, brightness, the size and clarity of an object play a crucial role in realizing the vision.
Proximity: According to this law, nearby objects are perceived to belong to a similar group instead of being in distinct groups.
Continuity/closure: According to Continuity law, an object is perceived as a whole when it is lined to a straight line or a complete circular path. According to the perceptual closure law, the visual system forms a sensual perception from unfinished objects.
Top-down and bottom-up processing: This law form techniques that are applied in understanding the process of perception. The form in which the brain group and understand patterns is the Top-down processing approach, whereas the use of inducement such as eyes to transfer information to the brain to create visual perception.
Q 3: Depth Illusion
Motion parallax makes a stationary object appear to be moving when we look outside while driving fast. The monocular cues make the object position to shift about motion as perceived by the retina of the eye while driving fast. Also, at an aerial point of view, an object that is far from the view is blurred as a result of the atmosphere (Ylikoski, 2017). Furthermore, monocular cue makes the large objects that are far away to be perceived as small.