Pax Romana

Pax Romana 
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Introduction
Pax Romana is a Roman word, which meant roman peace. This was a period, which was characterized by stability and harmony within the Roman Territory, which endured for more than 200 years. It started with the reign of Augustus, 27BCE-14CE and when the Octavian became the ruler of the Roman territory (Burton, 2013). Augustus and his successors had a common aim, which was to ensure the law was a guarantee in Rome, an order was present, and security within the empire was intact. The rulers did all they had even if it meant having Rome separated from the other parts of the continent or expanding their borders through military intervention. Throughout Pax Romana, there was unprecedented economic prosperity and peace within the empire. This spanned from north England to south Morocco and east Iraq. In regards to the land area and population, the empire reached its peak with an estimate of about 70 million residents. During this period, there were certain features, which were eminent; civil war, all roads leading to Rome, and bald is not beauty.
Civil war
A retro of civil war vented after the murder of Julius Caesar in Rome. After this turmoil, there emerged a trio, which ruled the empire for a decade. The trio consisted of Julius Caesar's nephew, Octavian, Lepidus, and Antony. Despite this triad ruling the kingdom for a decade, there were differences between the leaders, which caused its collapse. It all started when Octavian overpowered Lepidus in a battle (Burton, 2013). He then twirled his army against the most influential at that time, Mark Antony. Antony had courted Cleopatra, the queen of Egypt who he fell in love with and later married her. Cleopatra was a spellbinding queen. In 31 B.C.E. during the clash of Actium, which was off the coast of Greece, Julius Caesar's nephew's army vanquished the navy of Cleopatra and Antony. Later, Cleopatra and Antony committed murder.
Octavian then reverted to Rome with a win and implicated himself the label of “princeps” which meant the first citizen. To avoid upsetting the senate, Octavian was cautious and did not pronounce himself a dictator like his uncle Julius Caesar did. However, Octavian reigned as a de facto dictator; he ensured that other institutions of the republican states were highly maintained. The holy title of Augustus was bestowed upon Octavian in 27 B.C.E. After that, Augustus became known and ruled for 41 years (Burton, 2011). The plans he implemented laid ground for the goodwill and constancy of the Pax Romana. As such, Rome was externally stable from conflicts. With a good army, they fought everyone and won their battles.All this people ensured Rome was peaceful. Internally, there were a set of rules which ensured the emperors never incorporated dictatorship. Externally, they had treaties which ensured peace .The treatiez were formed by the superiors of the regimes involved.
All roads lead to Rome
Secondly, all roads lead to Rome was a characteristic of the Pax Romana. During the 200 years of Pax Romana, there were numerous developments and undertakings certainly in the engineering sector. To maintain their spreading empire, the Romans had to ensure they acquired an extensive road system. Specialists who made them durable and robust to facilitate communication and movement of armies built the roads. The roads also ensured water and other necessities were transported to farms and cities (Burton, 2011). Most of these advances in building and architecture relied on the innovation of concrete by the Romans. Concrete facilitated the construction of huge curved domes and arches.
The pantheon was some of the most prominent structures constructed during the period of Pax Romana. Until date, the concrete has one of the most massive freestanding domes. During this time, writers emerged too. Some of the prominent writers of that time included Horace, Virgil, Livy, and Ovid, who created poetic and scholarly written works. Mainly, the pieces praised the roman and how peaceful and growing it had changed too.This pieces of writing promoted peace as much the people marketed them. Rome became politically, economically, and culturally stable, and the capital of the whole western realm.The idea of all roads leading to Rome also ensured there was peace externally. There were tight securities for individuals who tried to create fracas within Rome. This made Pax Romana a smooth period.
Bald is not beauty
Lastly, the period was characterized by bald is not beauty. In 14 C.E. after the death of Augustus, other roman rulers had their sufficient variance of controlling the empire. Caligula, one of the emperors, had mental illness and abused his power. He was very sensitive about being bald. As such, he instructed everyone who had so much hair to shave and prohibited people from looking upon his head (Ostrow, 2010). Caligula was a sadist who was happy witnessing individuals die due to torture. In fact, he always instructed his army to prolong killings so he could enjoy the viewing. He also had a tremendous sexual appetite, which made him commit incest with his siblings. Due to his mental illness, he did activities, which people ever wondered. For instance, he often invited his favorite horse to dine with him. This uncanny and autocratic behavior made the Romans turn in contradiction of him. Individuals assassinated him from his Praetorian guard. This war helped the empire restore its peace internally. Having Bald head promoted uniformity in the regime. All peolple appreciated the way the looked, therefore there was harmony witbin Rome ensuring Pax Romana a smooth era.
In the final years of Pax Romana, Marcus Aurelius became the last emperor to rule Rome effectively. After his reign, a disastrous reign of Anthony Marcus son, Commodus was experienced. During this time, the kingdom struggled to resist tribes that attacked from the frontier.
Mainly, Octavian ruled the Pax Romana. He bought numerous transformations, which lead to the development of the empire. The roman residents appreciated and understood the value of peace and security, which was brought by Augustus (Ostrow, 2010). The Latin people started worshipping him that he became a god to them, and a cult, imperial cult emerged. Sovereigns, who obeyed the Augustus, maintained the Augustus peace. They did this by diminishing conflict, upholding harmony at their homes, and expanding borders and boundaries.
Conclusion.
Pax Romana is one of the appreciated periods in Rome. The period took 200 years, which were characterized by political stability, economic progress, and cultural appreciation. There are three key features, which marked this period, the civil war period, which was characterized by building and expanding of the nation. Secondly, all roads lead to Rome featured the improvements of Rome Empire in terms of infrastructure and economic growth. Lastly, bald is not beauty, was characterized by the fall of the Pax Romana period. Evidently, the Pax Romana was one of the successful eras experienced by Rome residents.
 
References 
Burton, P. (2011). Pax Romana/Pax Americana: Perceptions of Rome in American Political Culture, 2000–2010. International Journal of the Classical Tradition, 18(1), 66-104. 
Burton, P. J. (2013). Pax Romana/Pax Americana: Views of the “New Rome” from “Old Europe,” 2000–2010. International Journal of the Classical Tradition, 20(1-2), 15-40. 
Ostrow, S. F. (2010). Paul V, the Column of the Virgin, and the new Pax Romana. Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, 69(3), 352-377.