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Islamic Republic of Iran, a powerful country in the Middle East, formerly known as Persia is highly situated on a large plateau in the South West of Asia between the Gulf of Oman, the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea. Turkey, Iraq, Armenia, Turkmenistan, Pakistan and Afghanistan are its neighboring countries both in the south, north, east and west. It covers an area of 1,648,000sq km. Iran’s capital city is Teheran. The variations in the rainfall and altitude affects Iran’s climate in that it ranges from sub-tropical to subpolar. Both the rainfall and altitude variations depend on the different regions of Iran.
Iran emerged in 1979 from the very many civilizations that happened before. Therefore, being one of the oldest and earliest continuous civilized countries in the world, it came from the Zagros foothills, animal husbandry and agriculture was developed thus leading to urban culture development in Tigris Euphrates basin. Early 100 B.C.E, the Elamites were the first urban people to reside in the great southwest region of Khuzestan, thus exposing the Iran as a country to civilization. After the Islamic Revolution in 1979, there was no total accurate number of the population. There only existed a balance between the male (49%) and female (50%) gender. Majority of Iranians are Muslims and Persian is their official language. Therefore, the word Iran in Persia means, “Land of the Aryans.” Says, Lehnardt. K (2019).
In Iran, cultural symbolism mostly prevails. One unique thing about Iran is that it is the only country actually in the Middle East that uses the solar calendar. Furthermore it is also the only state on earth that marks New Year advent at the spring equinox. In 1979, a shah was overthrown, named Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. Mohammad made an effort to make the twenty-five-hundred-year-old monarchy itself a central symbol as part of the life of Iranians. For that to happen, he had to plan a sequence of fancy parties to the public in order for them to get a picture of the monarchy. The state’s primeval crest was a lion holding a scimitar against a rising sun. Not only was it Iran’s symbol but also the olden kingdom’s too, and was glaringly exhibited on the state’s flag which has green, white and red as its colors. After the Iranian revolution, both the lion of Persia and the emblem no longer existed. Later, an abstract symbol replaced it. The abstract symbol represented a simple Islamic creed, “There is no god but God.” All in all, the tricolor background was maintained.
In the last twenty years, the state of Iran transited from a nominal constitutional monarchy to a democratic democracy. Just like any other state, Iran to has its up and downs in the system of the government. The Iranian citizens of 16 years of age and above are allowed to vote and elect in their president of their choice. The elected presidents serves his/her citizens for a term of four years. The legislature arm consists of 270 associates which the citizens also elect. Moreso, some spaces are kept for the known interest groups. The prime minister seat’s absence in the government makes the speaker’s spot politically significant. The president, head of state, has the power to choose a Council of Ministers, an Expediency Council, and serves as the head of the Council of National Security.
Typically, the Iranian government also has the three arms of the government which is the judiciary, legislature an executive judicial bodies. In 2005, Iran’s current president is Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, was elected as Iran’s president and in 2009 elections, he was re-elected. Majils-e Shura, a parliament of Iran, is managed by some conformists of Iranian government, but the parliament offering at least a seat to the several well-known state’s religious minorities is mandatory.
The armed forces of Iran is categorized into two and reflects the political system’s divisions. They include the typical state run military and religiously-motivated military. The typical state-run military, sub groups include a navy, an army and the air force. However, while the religiously-motivated military arm is run by a Supreme Leader, also known as the Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution (Sepāh-e Pāsdārān-e Enqelāb-e Eslāmi), which also possesses an army, a navy, and an air force of its own.
Iran as a state, faces severe issues politically. These issues pose a threat to its internal stability. Due to certain nation’s policies, several ethnic groups from different parts of Iran, for example the Balouchs, the Kurds and Arabs have aimed for self-governance and absolute retreat to other cases. Correspondingly, due to the 2009 protests’ repercussions, the government fears for the next elections. Thus, the supreme Leader, Khameini, calls for alertness in the 2013 elections to inhibit last year’s violence. Iran’s passion for the nuclear technology led to UN bringing about conflict and strict authorizations.
Over the last decade, the economic status of Iran has exceptionally become problematical. Subsequent to the Islamic Revolution, Iran was stricken with the Iran-Iraq War. This war drained Iran both physically and financially and physically to its breaking point. Alongside to this, massive prominent industries transitioned and became nationalized. Bonyads, charitable trusts, enormously emerged from the assets of the economy. Iran is currently the world’s 18th largest economy, With a GDP of around $888 million, Iran is the 18th world’s largest economy.
Iran does continue to have a number of economic issues and priorities. The bonyads of Iran are now an unjustified portion of non-oil economic constituents of Iran. They have also been blamed by some of utilizing illegal market practices. A major economic issue in Iran is corruption. Similarly, the authorizations put against Iran led to widespread rise. This has also assisted in the seriously destabilizing of the economy despite the shoot in the oil prices. All in all, autumn and spring are the best time to visit Iran and enjoy the site of the 23 UNESCOs.

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