Learning allows employees to gain new skills and knowledge. There are three types of knowledge which are valuable in an organizational setting, which are explicit, tacit, and implicit knowledge. Explicit knowledge is the kind which is indisputable and easily documented, and this includes product functionality, procedures, content and evidence from research. Tacit knowledge is practical in kind, which needs time for articulation, such as how to develop a computer program. Implicit knowledge is that which is intuitive and embedded experience, the kind which is ineffable, one which is recognized by sight, such as industry experts and institutional processes.
Mumford (1988) proposed that a significant barrier to adult learning is cognitive blocks, which are the motivational or emotional blocks which occur when an demotivated manager becomes less willing to take up new risks in learning, which bars them from learning as a result of previous experience.
In order to improve organization psychological climate, managers can engage in several actions. Role clarity
A manager can enforce role clarity, to ensure that employees maintain an understanding of their responsibilities and duties in the workplace. Once their roles are clear, employees can become more focused on fulfilling their duties and completing daily tasks that are pre-assigned to them, eventually increasing productivity.
A manager can engage in leader support, whereby, as a leader, they champion or model support from different levels of the firm, such as appointing an human resources supervisor who will help relay the employees daily needs to the human resources department. Eventually a supportive work environment is created.
A manager can encourage cooperation in an organization by setting up committees which consist members from different departments, channeling together their knowledge and efforts in working towards a targeted end. This gives workgroup members the feeling of being part of something larger.
A team is different from a group such that, a team consists people come together in collective effort to work towards a common set goal, and a group consists more than one person who are selected by a firm for the purpose of fulfilling social or organizational needs. While a large amount of work in an organization is completed in groups, each person has their own unique effectiveness whose value is dependent on the nature of the teams which they are a part of in working towards particular objectives.
A person can work alone when they are fully responsible for the outcome of a particular project, and prefer working in the absence of distractions so that they can concentrate and focus. A person can work in a group in the case where they do not possess full knowledge concerning how to go about certain tasks, so they can compensate their weaknesses using strengths from other group members. Additionally, whereas it is preferable to work alone in simple and less challenging problems or tasks, it becomes necessary to work in groups when handling complex tasks. Working alone is best where decisions need to be made faster, and working in a group is necessary where careful deliberation and high commitment is needed before making a decision.
The key dimensions in teams as identified by West (2004) are degree of performance, skill/competence needed, and autonomy and influence.
Yukl (2004) held that an effective leader is created inherently, by developing leadership attributes, values, skills and motives. Yukl holds that an effective leader is comes to being by nature and by adopting traits which are not held by other people. An effective leader is one who has special talents that are inborn, these include being extraverted, being able to speak well and having physical characteristics that stand out such as height.
The three traditional theories of leadership are trait theory, leadership style theory and contingency theory. The trait theory holds that great leaders are born with the desired qualities and not made. It supports the idea of nature and overlooks nurture in the leadership development process. It means that if one can lead, they are possibly born with leadership qualities. The leadership style suggests that leadership is situational, such that a leader is determined by the way they take control over the situation at hand. The contingency theory determines that different variables which are present in a particular setting make up a leader.