DISCUSSION

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

               Discussion

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Discussion

Data/Information/Knowledge

QUESTION 2

Data is a set of values of topics concerning measurable variables. Data, information and knowledge, have been always used interchangeably. Nevertheless, data becomes information in context or post-analysis (Bellinger, Castro, & Mills, 2004). The concept of data is often linked with scientific research. Organisations, business, institutions, government and even individuals collect a massive range of data for analysis. Organization measures data, manage, analyse and make reports concerning the data collected. The data can be put in the form of graphs, images or on other easy analysis tools for visualization. In an overall conception, data is viewed to the proofs that some general information is represented in some appropriate form, for improved usage by an organization and any group that may need the information. Row data is data which has not been processed, it is usually in the form of numbers, before it has been corrected by the research person (Bellinger, Castro, & Mills, 2004). Data can be field or experimental data. Knowledge on the hand, refers to the ability of understanding grounded on extensive experience dealing with information on a particular subject. While information is the knowledge communicated or received regarding a specific fact

Data, information and knowledge are often used interchangeably, though they are not the some because the three are built from one another. Data, information and expertise relate in one way or the other. For example, data when it is analyzed and put in the form of, for example, chart or image, then its size to be data, it becomes information. Someone receive information of something after going through arrange of data (Zins, 2007). After obtaining the information from the asset of data, someone is considered to have gain knowledge in that area. For example, research gets insight on a specific topic after collecting data, analyse it and write a report concern the same data. The researcher does all this because of the information and knowledge he or she has achieved on that particular area of study, in an organisational institution depending on the reason for the study.

Reply 1

Organisation have information deficiency problem because of, most organisation finds hard to know when a particular information will be relevant to the organisation in future, therefore this gives the organisation laziness of not either filling or putting their information in a proper way for future usage (Hey, 2004).organization also find it difficult to store information because of lack of capacity. Some organisation even lack personnel or expertise for handling their data hence making it even difficult for them to keep information that can be retrieved and used in future. Lack of specialize expertise in data analysis and presentation has also made it difficult for the organisation to keep their information.,this is because even after the organisation collecting specific data, there is no one to analyses and put in a manner that can be understood by everyone who may need the information in future  hence making the data useless. Poor managers in the organisation is also another cause of lack of information in some organisation.the managers cannot even keep a report from research from staff.

Reply 2

The following ways are used to overcome information deficiency in organisations. Effective planning is essential in overcoming information deficiency. An organisation need to have effective planning on both financial and management issue. An organisation need to plan earlier on which information they need to store and the capacity that may be required for the storage of that particular information. Secondly, an organisation need to establish a real and an efficient communication .to achieve effective and efficient communication, the organisation need to have right management term, which understands the importance of communication .as communication is the only best way that can be used to emphasise the importance of keeping information. Furthermore, the organisation hire an expert for handling essential data .this person will be responsible for all the data analysis and keeping it safe.so that in case the organisation need the data either for analyses of how the organisation is performing and competing with others, the data expert produces it.


 

References

Bellinger, G., Castro, D., & Mills, A. (2004). Data, information, knowledge, and wisdom.

Bellinger, G., Castro, D., & Mills, A. (2004). Data, information, knowledge, and wisdom.

Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual approaches for defining data, information, and knowledge. Journal of the American Society for information science and technology, 58(4), 479-493.

Hey, J. (2004). The data, information, knowledge, wisdom chain: the metaphorical link. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, 26, 1-18.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Data Management

QUESTION 3

Data plays a significant role in the success of any business, data allow businesses to progress on the aiming, improving internal operations, and magnificently drive innovation (Ryan,& Bernard, 2000). As many businesses look to embracing the latest expertise, the accuracy, and value of data turn out to be significant for business progression. Poor data quality affects the business negatively on the internal rate of return, on both short and long term basis. Furthermore poor data quality is extremely costly for the company, not only on the financial resources, but it also affects the businesses efficiency in saving customers, budgeting and caring out its normal operations, productivity, this is in term of the volume of good and services sold, more the productivity of the employees decreases because there are no good records for monitoring their performance in the business. For instance, a firm that lacks or have poor quality data, can not be able to set targets for its employees and even be able to gadge the employee's performance against the targets at the end of the month or year (Bouwman, 2016). Poor data also affect the business in terms of yearly turn out. The bussiness cannot be able to know if it made a profit in previous years , because it does not have good quality data. Credibility of the business is also at risk if the business lack good quality .good example is when a business has dispute with a customer and is unable to provide proofs on the originality of their product, the dispute may end up to the court and if the business is found missing important document such as receipt of proof. The court may demand the business to compensate the customer. By doing so the business lowers its reputation and credibility .in such a scenario the business will lose the existing customer and even the new customers who were planning maybe to be buying products there keeps off from it.

 

REPLY 1

Data mining

Data mining refer to the process by which business or an organisation changes raw data into valuable information (Hand, 2006). Data mining in the industry involves, for example, supermarkets carry the data mining by giving out loyalty cards to the customer. Therefore, the customer will buy good at a reduced price. By giving out the card, it makes it easy for the supermarket to track who is buying for example what, when is buying and at what costs .after completing the analyzation of the data, the supermarket can now be able to offer coupons to the customers basing on their habits purchasing and decides on when the items should be put on sale or at time they can sell it at full prizes. Data mining is done nearly by all business because it is an element of improving sales and sales  led generation in the business. Data mining can also be used by corporations for every activity it carries out such, from learning about what consumers are attracted in or want to buy to fraud revealing and spam cleaning.

 

 

 

REPLY 2

Text mining

The process of of discovering and evaluating large amount of formless data, by the assistance of software’s which are capable to recognise patterns, themes, concept and other critical wards in other attributes in data is referred to as text mining (Miner, Elder, Fast., Hill,  Nisbet, & Delen, 2012). Text mining is also defined as text analytics, and it is seen as application that is assisted by the use of text mining techniques to sort through the statistics set. In the recent years text mining has to turn out to be a more practical for data scientist and other people who uses it, because of the establishment of great data stages and in-depth knowledge of algorithms which are in position to analyse large sets of formless data. Mining and analysation of the texts help organisation and companies to find potentially valuable business insights in the corporate documents, customer emails, surveys comments and call centre logs. Due to the benefits brought by text mining, this has been an increase in the incorporation of the text mining techniques into small, medium-sized and even large organisations.


 

References

Ryan, G. W., & Bernard, H. R. (2000). Data management and analysis methods.

Wilkinson, M. D., Dumontier, M., Aalbersberg, I. J., Appleton, G., Axton, M., Baak, A., … & Bouwman, J. (2016). The FAIR Guiding Principles for scientific data management and stewardship. Scientific data, 3.

Hand, D. J. (2006). Data Mining. Encyclopedia of Environmetrics, 2.

Miner, G., Elder IV, J., Fast, A., Hill, T., Nisbet, R., & Delen, D. (2012). Practical text mining and statistical analysis for non-structured text data applications. Academic Press.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

QUESTION 4

Net neutrality, effect on network and business

Net neutrality is the idea that the service suppliers of the internet such as Verizon and Comcast should treat all the content streaming over their cables and cells towers to be shared by all the internet users in an equal share (Greenstein, Peitz, & Valletti, 2016). This means that the internet provider is prevented from sliding some data into fast lanes at the expense of discriminating other users against the same material. For instance, these companies are discouraged from blocking or slowing down users services such as Netflix, so that the the cable package is kept or bought whenever the subscription date has reached. Neutrality is an idea that was brought up by the federation of communication.

Net neutrality effect on the network, it will help to improve the system, this is because of the removal of the restriction of the net, which is typically based on the data brand bought (Krämer, & Wiewiorra, 2012). Internet users will be able to enjoy high speed network without limitations. However, net neutrality may also affect the speed of the net when many users are connected to a particular net at the some time. Net neutrality will also damage some business by, decreasing the organic and paid traffics, because site speed plays over significant role in term of traffic acquisition and retention. Secondly, it will reduce conversion, as with the reduced rate on the website, it will lead to fewer conversions a, and this will directly affect the revenue, hence slowing down the growth of the business that operate through the websites and lastly, net neutrality will lead to diminishing performance and the user experience affected too, through the blocking and slowdown, it will change all the software that operates on the internet-based (Bauer, 2006, August). However, also have benefits to other small business which do not have the ability to buy the high speed packages, as with net neutrality everyone will use the same speed of internet.

REPLY 1

Internet neutrality will lead to IT efficiency because when the limitation of using high speed are removed, this is because people will be able to get extensive access to quality information from the internet. Internet neutrality is also improved IT efficiency in high learning institutions as student will be able to get high quality internet without limitation (Krämer, Wiewiorra, Weinhardt, 2013) With removal of internet packages and allowing users to access equal internet services, people will be able to use online resource to improve their life, learning materials will be easily accessed at an n affordable price, and moreever people will be able to watch a range of movies and videos on their laptops, phone and computers. Internet will enhance the lives of people. With internet neutrality, the information technology efficiency will be boosted even in the developing countries which do not afford to buy the high quality packages . REPLY 2

They will be in a position to enjoy the service. More these developing countries will be able to build up IT labs in colleges and high schools to enhance student information technology.With internet neutrality, the sell s of the mobile phone, laptops and computers will increase, because demand will increase because of the excellent quality internet for everyone. Nevertheless with internet neutrality, cybercrime and buying may increase .cyberbullying may discourage people from using social media such as Facebook, many people are usually, sensitive to bullying and if exposed to it they keep off .There is also the problem of increased cyber attacker, who hacks organisation information or at terms extract money from the organisation or the bank .therefor it is essential for the stalk holders to consider the security of the internet users before introducing the internet neutrality, internet providers business and social effects of using social media should also be put under consideration.


 

References

Greenstein, S., Peitz, M., & Valletti, T. (2016). Net neutrality: A fast lane to understanding the trade-offs.

Krämer, J., & Wiewiorra, L. (2012). Network neutrality and congestion sensitive content providers: Implications for content variety, broadband investment, and regulation. Information Systems Research, 23(4), 1303-1321.

 TPRC.Bauer, J. M. (2006, August). Dynamic effects of network neutrality. TPRC.

Krämer, J., Wiewiorra, L., & Weinhardt, C. (2013). Net neutrality: A progress report. Telecommunications Policy, 37(9), 794-813.

 

 

 

 

Discussion

OUESTION 5

Data/Information/Knowledge

Data is a set of values of topics concerning measurable variables. Data, information and knowledge, have been always used interchangeably. Nevertheless, data becomes information in context or post-analysis (Bellinger, Castro, & Mills, 2004). The concept of data is often linked with scientific research. Organisations, business, institutions, government and even individuals collect a massive range of data for analysis. Organization measures data, manage, analyse and make reports concerning the data collected. The data can be put in the form of graphs, images or on other easy analysis tools for visualization. In an overall conception, data is viewed to the proofs that some general information is represented in some appropriate form, for improved usage by an organization and any group that may need the information. Row data is data which has not been processed, it is usually in the form of numbers, before it has been corrected by the research person (Bellinger, Castro, & Mills, 2004). Data can be field or experimental data. Knowledge on the hand, refers to the ability of understanding grounded on extensive experience dealing with information on a particular subject. While information is the knowledge communicated or received regarding a specific fact

Data, information and knowledge are often used interchangeably, though they are not the some because the three are built from one another. Data, information and expertise relate in one way or the other. For example, data when it is analyzed and put in the form of, for example, chart or image, then its size to be data, it becomes information. Someone receive information of something after going through arrange of data (Zins, 2007). After obtaining the information from the asset of data, someone is considered to have gain knowledge in that area. For example, research gets insight on a specific topic after collecting data, analyse it and write a report concern the same data. The researcher does all this because of the information and knowledge he or she has achieved on that particular area of study, in an organisational institution depending on the reason for the study.

REPLY 1

Organisation have information deficiency problem because of, most organisation finds hard to know when a particular information will be relevant to the organisation in future, therefore this gives the organisation laziness of not either filling or putting their information in a proper way for future usage (Hey, 2004).organization also find it difficult to store information because of lack of capacity. Some organisation even lack personnel or expertise for handling their data hence making it even difficult for them to keep information that can be retrieved and used in future. Lack of specialize expertise in data analysis and presentation has also made it difficult for the organisation to keep their information.,this is because even after the organisation collecting specific data, there is no one to analyses and put in a manner that can be understood by everyone who may need the information in future  hence making the data useless. Poor managers in the organisation is also another cause of lack of information in some organisation.the managers cannot even keep a report from research from staff.

REPLY 2

The following ways are used to overcome information deficiency in organisations. Effective planning is essential in overcoming information deficiency. An organisation need to have effective planning on both financial and management issue. An organisation need to plan earlier on which information they need to store and the capacity that may be required for the storage of that particular information. Secondly, an organisation need to establish a real and an efficient communication .to achieve effective and efficient communication, the organisation need to have right management term, which understands the importance of communication .as communication is the only best way that can be used to emphasise the importance of keeping information. Furthermore, the organisation hire an expert for handling essential data .this person will be responsible for all the data analysis and keeping it safe.so that in case the organisation need the data either for analyses of how the organisation is performing and competing with others, the data expert produces it.


 

References

Bellinger, G., Castro, D., & Mills, A. (2004). Data, information, knowledge, and wisdom.

Bellinger, G., Castro, D., & Mills, A. (2004). Data, information, knowledge, and wisdom.

Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual approaches for defining data, information, and knowledge. Journal of the American Society for information science and technology, 58(4), 479-493.

Hey, J. (2004). The data, information, knowledge, wisdom chain: the metaphorical link. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, 26, 1-18.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

OUESTION 1

Data Management

Data plays a significant role in the success of any business, data allow businesses to progress on the aiming, improving internal operations, and magnificently drive innovation (Ryan,& Bernard, 2000). As many businesses look to embracing the latest expertise, the accuracy, and value of data turn out to be significant for business progression. Poor data quality affects the business negatively on the internal rate of return, on both short and long term basis. Furthermore poor data quality is extremely costly for the company, not only on the financial resources, but it also affects the businesses efficiency in saving customers, budgeting and caring out its normal operations, productivity, this is in term of the volume of good and services sold, more the productivity of the employees decreases because there are no good records for monitoring their performance in the business. For instance, a firm that lacks or have poor quality data, can not be able to set targets for its employees and even be able to gadge the employee's performance against the targets at the end of the month or year (Bouwman, 2016). Poor data also affect the business in terms of yearly turn out. The bussiness cannot be able to know if it made a profit in previous years , because it does not have good quality data. Credibility of the business is also at risk if the business lack good quality .good example is when a business has dispute with a customer and is unable to provide proofs on the originality of their product, the dispute may end up to the court and if the business is found missing important document such as receipt of proof. The court may demand the business to compensate the customer. By doing so the business lowers its reputation and credibility .in such a scenario the business will lose the existing customer and even the new customers who were planning maybe to be buying products there keeps off from it.

 

REPLY 1

Data mining

Data mining refer to the process by which business or an organisation changes raw data into valuable information (Hand, 2006). Data mining in the industry involves, for example, supermarkets carry the data mining by giving out loyalty cards to the customer. Therefore, the customer will buy good at a reduced price. By giving out the card, it makes it easy for the supermarket to track who is buying for example what, when is buying and at what costs .after completing the analyzation of the data, the supermarket can now be able to offer coupons to the customers basing on their habits purchasing and decides on when the items should be put on sale or at time they can sell it at full prizes. Data mining is done nearly by all business because it is an element of improving sales and sales  led generation in the business. Data mining can also be used by corporations for every activity it carries out such, from learning about what consumers are attracted in or want to buy to fraud revealing and spam cleaning.

REPLY 2

Text mining

The process of of discovering and evaluating large amount of formless data, by the assistance of software’s which are capable to recognise patterns, themes, concept and other critical wards in other attributes in data is referred to as text mining (Miner, Elder, Fast., Hill,  Nisbet, & Delen, 2012). Text mining is also defined as text analytics, and it is seen as application that is assisted by the use of text mining techniques to sort through the statistics set. In the recent years text mining has to turn out to be a more practical for data scientist and other people who uses it, because of the establishment of great data stages and in-depth knowledge of algorithms which are in position to analyse large sets of formless data. Mining and analysation of the texts help organisation and companies to find potentially valuable business insights in the corporate documents, customer emails, surveys comments and call centre logs. Due to the benefits brought by text mining, this has been an increase in the incorporation of the text mining techniques into small, medium-sized and even large organisations.


 

References

Ryan, G. W., & Bernard, H. R. (2000). Data management and analysis methods.

Wilkinson, M. D., Dumontier, M., Aalbersberg, I. J., Appleton, G., Axton, M., Baak, A., … & Bouwman, J. (2016). The FAIR Guiding Principles for scientific data management and stewardship. Scientific data, 3.

Hand, D. J. (2006). Data Mining. Encyclopedia of Environmetrics, 2.

Miner, G., Elder IV, J., Fast, A., Hill, T., Nisbet, R., & Delen, D. (2012). Practical text mining and statistical analysis for non-structured text data applications. Academic Press.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

QUESTION 7

Net neutrality, effect on network and business

Net neutrality is the idea that the service suppliers of the internet such as Verizon and Comcast should treat all the content streaming over their cables and cells towers to be shared by all the internet users in an equal share (Greenstein, Peitz, & Valletti, 2016). This means that the internet provider is prevented from sliding some data into fast lanes at the expense of discriminating other users against the same material. For instance, these companies are discouraged from blocking or slowing down users services such as Netflix, so that the the cable package is kept or bought whenever the subscription date has reached. Neutrality is an idea that was brought up by the federation of communication.

Net neutrality effect on the network, it will help to improve the system, this is because of the removal of the restriction of the net, which is typically based on the data brand bought (Krämer, & Wiewiorra, 2012). Internet users will be able to enjoy high speed network without limitations. However, net neutrality may also affect the speed of the net when many users are connected to a particular net at the some time. Net neutrality will also damage some business by, decreasing the organic and paid traffics, because site speed plays over significant role in term of traffic acquisition and retention. Secondly, it will reduce conversion, as with the reduced rate on the website, it will lead to fewer conversions a, and this will directly affect the revenue, hence slowing down the growth of the business that operate through the websites and lastly, net neutrality will lead to diminishing performance and the user experience affected too, through the blocking and slowdown, it will change all the software that operates on the internet-based (Bauer, 2006, August). However, also have benefits to other small business which do not have the ability to buy the high speed packages, as with net neutrality everyone will use the same speed of internet.

REPLY 1

Internet neutrality will lead to IT efficiency because when the limitation of using high speed are removed, this is because people will be able to get extensive access to quality information from the internet. Internet neutrality is also improved IT efficiency in high learning institutions as student will be able to get high quality internet without limitation (Krämer, Wiewiorra, Weinhardt, 2013) With removal of internet packages and allowing users to access equal internet services, people will be able to use online resource to improve their life, learning materials will be easily accessed at an n affordable price, and moreever people will be able to watch a range of movies and videos on their laptops, phone and computers. Internet will enhance the lives of people. With internet neutrality, the information technology efficiency will be boosted even in the developing countries which do not afford to buy the high quality packages

REPLY 2

They will be in a position to enjoy the service. More these developing countries will be able to build up IT labs in colleges and high schools to enhance student information technology.With internet neutrality, the sell s of the mobile phone, laptops and computers will increase, because demand will increase because of the excellent quality internet for everyone. Nevertheless with internet neutrality, cybercrime and buying may increase .cyberbullying may discourage people from using social media such as Facebook, many people are usually, sensitive to bullying and if exposed to it they keep off .There is also the problem of increased cyber attacker, who hacks organisation information or at terms extract money from the organisation or the bank .therefor it is essential for the stalk holders to consider the security of the internet users before introducing the internet neutrality, internet providers business and social effects of using social media should also be put under consideration.


 

References

Greenstein, S., Peitz, M., & Valletti, T. (2016). Net neutrality: A fast lane to understanding the trade-offs.

Krämer, J., & Wiewiorra, L. (2012). Network neutrality and congestion sensitive content providers: Implications for content variety, broadband investment, and regulation. Information Systems Research, 23(4), 1303-1321.

 TPRC.Bauer, J. M. (2006, August). Dynamic effects of network neutrality. TPRC.

Krämer, J., Wiewiorra, L., & Weinhardt, C. (2013). Net neutrality: A progress report. Telecommunications Policy, 37(9), 794-813.