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PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES
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Question 1.
There are various perspectives or approaches to psychology. The major perspective in psychology includes; behavioral, biological, cognitive, psychodynamic and humanistic. These approaches try to explain the behaviors exhibited by animals including human beings. As such, they provide answers to the behaviors exhibited by animals in a different environment.
Behaviorist perspective.
The behavioral perspective states that the behaviors exhibited by animals including human beings are a result of the environment they live in. Environment controls the behaviors of animals since animals learn a lot from the environment. In the behavioral perspective of psychology, observable behavior which is normally referred to as response comes as a result of exposure to stimuli which are environmental factors. As such, the behaviors of an animal come as a result of exposure to a particular environmental factor.
There are two processes proposed by the behaviorist perspective of psychology namely; operant and classical conditioning. These processes entail the way people or rather animals learn from the environment. Classical conditioning entails a person or an animal learning by association while operant conditioning entails animals learning from the behavioral consequences. An example of classical conditioning is when certain behavior exhibited by an animal is associated with a particular thing such as sound, time, and reward among other things. In an experiment done by Pavlov for instance, a dog was able to salivate as a result of the sound of a bell after the sound of the bell had repeatedly been associated with food. Operant conditioning on the other hand shows that the behavior of a person is a result of their motive. The behavior of a person for example can be changed through punishment. Negative reinforcement, punishment, and positive reinforcement are the major techniques through which the behavior of an animal including human beings can be changed.
Biological perspective.
The biological approach states that all feelings, thoughts, and behavior are a result of a biological cause. This perspective entails studying such things as the nervous system, brain, genetics, immune as well as hormones. In this approach, the behaviors of a person is a result of biological cause such as an inheritance from their parents. Genes are passed from parents to children during the reproduction process and as such, the genes pass certain behaviors from the parents to the child. Hormones, chromosomes as well as the brain also have a critical influence on the behavior of a person as exhibited by different behaviors of male and female persons. Gender is determined by factors such as the chromosomes and hormones that a person has and this determines their behavior as well.
A perfect example of biological perspective is the difference between the behaviors exhibited by women and men. The difference in behaviors between men and women can be explained by the composition of their hormones, chromosomes as well as brains. For this reason, it has a biological cause. Another example that can be used to explain the biological approach is the ability of a talented singer to have a child who also has talent in singing. This is because the genes pass from the parent to the child.
Humanistic perspective.
The humanistic approach entails and emphasizes studying the whole person to determine their behaviors. It involves analyzing the behaviors of a person not only through observing them but also through looking into their behaviors as well. According to humanistic psychologists, self-image and inner feeling have a great impact on the behavior of a person. This approach centers its view on the fact that every person is unique and can change their life anytime at their will. The humanistic perspective also states that every individual is responsible for their well-being and happiness. A perfect example of this approach is the difference exhibited by people in society through different social classes and happiness.
Even though each of the psychological perspectives tries to explain the behaviors of people in society, the biological perspective is the most useful according to me. It explains the real cause of behavior hence making it more useful and real. Behaviors in people have biological causes and can be passed from one generation to another through genes. For this reason, behaviors exhibited by people from a certain community cannot easily change and this maintains their cultures and beliefs.
Question 2.
Early experiences are very crucial to an individual as they determine their later life. Early experiences play a very critical role in determining who a person becomes in their life. For this reason, they determine the behaviors of a person as an adult. Childhood experiences teach us key lessons which we later apply in life as adults hence making our lives better. One of the best ways to explain this is through dream analysis. In most cases, people pursue their childhood dreams and this determines the kind of life they lead as adults. In schools, children determine their key goals in life and work towards achieving them. It is at the early stages that a person selects the dream that they want to pursue in life. A child with a dream to become a pilot for instance will work hard in school to achieve their dreams. For this reason, the visions and dreams we have as kids have a greater role in determining our future. Behaviors and discipline are instilled in children at their early stages. This is because it is very hard to change the behavior of an adult since they are already grown up and will always do what they have been used to doing during their childhood days.
Children learn from the environment they are exposed to and this determines their behaviors later in life as adults. The early stages of life of a person are usually the learning stage of a person. For this reason, the experiences of a person at their early stages of life make or break their life even during their adulthood. A child raised in an environment where there are high cases of crimes or violence for instance is likely to become a criminal or violent in their adulthood since it is a trait they learned when young. This is because children`s behavior is controlled by the environment and since this is the learning stage of a person, they pick the traits they see in society. For this reason, early experiences play a very critical role in determining the behaviors of an individual in their adult life.
Emotional support given to children in their first three years affects their later life significantly as it impacts their social life, education, and romantic relationships later in their life when they are adults. Parents who give their child attention and show them, love, make them grow loving people hence have a good social life as compared to those did not get that attention and love. Giving a child emotional supports helps them appreciate others even in their adulthood and this impacts significantly on how they relate with people. Children raise with adequate emotional support are likely to have good and romantic relationships later in their adulthood. The bond a child creates with their caregivers helps them interact effectively with other people in the society and this impacts either negatively or positively to their social life. If a child grows without interacting and playing with others, they tend to exhibit the same behaviors in their later life and this affects their social life significantly. Early experiences of an individual, therefore, are the best learning time for an individual.
Experiences are the learning moments for an individual hence they shape the life of a person significantly. The experience a person has at their early stages in life is however more likely to impact their life significantly. This is because, at the early stages of life, one can adapt quickly to changes in one environment since it is the learning stage of a person. Exposure to a different environment a person makes them learn and adapt effectively and this makes a person survive. It is the exposure that one had at their early stages in life when they were children that help them solve later challenges in life. The techniques people applied to solve problems at their early stages of life will also be very essential in solving later similar challenges in life once they appear. Early experiences, therefore, rule us for life as they guide and determine how we live in later years of our life. Past experiences are therefore essential in building one`s life in society.

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