Codes of Conducts for Individuals, Companies, and Governments
Facial recognition technology is a subset in the field of biometrics. Biometrics is an automated technique of recognizing and verifying that individuals are who they claim to be through the use of physiological characteristics of human beings such as facial characteristics, fingerprints, voice, and handwriting (Lin, 2000). The use of biometric systems to authenticate individuals is a very accurate technique and difficult to forge. Facial recognition is a way of identifying and verifying human beings by analyzing features of human face through the use of technology. The use of biometric is the technology behind the mapping of facial characteristics from images. The system matches the details of images with those of a recognized faces stored within a database.
The use of logical access control such as username and password has proven not a sufficient authentication and verification mechanism since the details can be easily stolen or a hacker can guess and gain access to a system or in a restricted area. Bobde and Deshmukh (2014) affirm that this problem can be solved by facial recognition technology because a face is indisputably related to the owner except in the scenario of identical twins. The face is a paramount part of who people are and how they are defined by others. Except for identical twins, the face is arguably the most specific physical features of a human. Although humans have millions of years of inherent ability to identify and differentiate various faces, machines are only catching up now.
Two forms of comparisons are required for face recognition. The first is authentication. This is where the machine contrasts the person with who the person thinks they are and offers a yes or no answer. Identification is a scenario where the facial recognition technology compares the person provided to with other people in the system and offers an ordered listing of matches. Facial recognition is known as one of the most tiresome of all scans. Besides, it is more complicated by the difficulty in obtaining the face and cost of equipment.
Although facial recognition technology has been rank as one of the most accurate forms of identification and verification of people, a lot of criticism has been mounted on it due to race bais amongst people with different colors and demographic groups. Some of these technologies offered by big technology companies like Amazon have demonstrated racial and gender biases whether they are more likely to misidentify black people than white men and women. As this technology is used by law enforcement agencies, it has been recognized that it is being used to undermine human rights and more specifically harm the black people and native people. Big technology companies around the globe have reiterated in selling the facial recognition technology to law enforcement agencies until there is a nationwide law regulating how the technology is used.
One of the industries that use facial recognition technology in healthcare. Healthcare firms are employing facial recognition to enhance patient care and improve service delivery. The healthcare companies are using this technology in areas such as fraud detection and prevention while processing insurance claims and boosting care for patients. Health insurance companies are using a photo to signed health insurance claims instead of using handwritten signatures to reduce the chances of fraud. Hospitals are using facial recognition in retrieving patient records, detect genetic diseases, and streamline other operations. As biometric technology becomes less costly, it is anticipated that usage in the healthcare sector will increase across a variety of areas.
Although the use of this technology in healthcare is paramount in terms of service delivery and fraud prevention, the firms within the industry must ensure that the technology is not being used to discriminate patients either due to their gender or color. The industry needs to come up with guidelines on how the technology is implemented and used. Since medical information is one of the highly confidential information, laws governing the use of facial recognition technology in healthcare must be put in place and strictly monitored to enhance the integrity and confidentiality of patient records (Al-Hijaili & AbdulAziz, 2011). The industry should be committed to the responsible use of advanced facial recognition technology to protect the privacy of the patient and correct the inherent racial bias.
Data Ethics and Issues
One of the most sensitive forms of information is medical information. Its misuse could have a very severe impact on the life of a person. An Electronic Medical Record (EMR) opens a window to improve access to data. Opportunities for the exploitation of this information and systems often pose new threats to the protection of privacy and health security. The data availability objective poses issues of access control, system stability, and backup mechanisms (redundancy of systems and data). Security and privacy is a key concern for sensitive data contained in healthcare systems, such as the EMR.
As new technology is incorporated into traditional medical systems, maintaining the reliability of medical records is becoming an increasingly significant issue. The absence of regulations governing the usage of facial recognition technology raises concerns among many people. One of the major issues is that the facial recognition technology has ascertained to be inaccurate at the identification of people of color (Martin, 2019). This concern can have a major impact on a patient when the system failed to recognize them especially in the process of record retrieval of insurance claim processing.